Scientific Blackpill

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The Blackpill is fundamentally about understanding the objective truth about human nature, sexuality, and female mate selection. Science provides the best methods by which we can do so. Although the truth can be uncomfortable at times, it is ultimately more valuable than indulging in wishful thinking. This page summarizes some of the key scientific literature which can help us understand the unvarnished nature of male-female sexual and relationship dynamics.

The information here is not a matter of "opinion" or "belief" but rather proven scientific fact. It is not meant to push any particular social or political agenda, but rather to educate about human nature without bias.


Contents

Personality[edit | edit source]

Women are attracted to the Dark Triad - narcissism, manipulativeness, & psychopathy[edit | edit source]


The dark triad is defined as: Narcissism, Manipulativeness, & Psychopathy. The "Dirty Dozen" is a scoring tool for quickly quantifying the Dark Triad:

  1. I tend to manipulate others to get my way.
  2. I tend to lack remorse.
  3. I tend to want others to admire me.
  4. I tend to be unconcerned with the morality of my actions.
  5. I have used deceit or lied to get my way.
  6. I tend to be callous or insensitive.
  7. I have used flattery to get my way.
  8. I tend to seek prestige or status.
  9. I tend to be cynical.
  10. I tend to exploit others toward my own end.
  11. I tend to expect special favors from others.
  12. I want others to pay attention to me.

Women were presented with male characters of varying degrees of Dark Triad personality. Physicality was held constant. Men with Dark Triad traits were dramatically more attractive to women compared to control characters who lacked these traits (with 99.9% statistical certainty). Furthermore, the attractiveness of these Dark Traits was not explained by other characteristics like extroversion.

Thus it seems apparent that while personality does matter to women, it does not matter in the ways they claim. Contrary to popular claims that women want a "nice, caring guy," in actual fact, they are most sexually attracted and aroused by narcissistic, manipulative, and psychopathic men.

This likely has a basis in evolutionary biology, as Dark Triad traits may have helped provide a competitive edge to men in difficult times, for example, by allowing a man to kill others for resources. Another possible explanation is that violent, callous or narcissistic behavior is an Honest Signal of exceptionally good erotic capital (i.e good looks) high social status or financial capital, as such a person who possesses these traits can 'get away' with behaving in such a manner.

Data:

Condition Attractiveness
Mean SD
High DT 4.44 1.17
Low DT 3.34 1.17

Quotes:

  • To explore the attractiveness of the DT personality to the other sex, 128 women rated created (male) characters designed to capture high DT facets of personality or a control personality.
  • Physicality was held constant.
  • Women rated the high DT character as significantly more attractive.
  • Psychopathic traits (lack of morality; interpersonal hostility) are beneficial to a short-term strategy and are correlated with unrestricted pattern of sexual behaviour.
  • The results of our study demonstrate that the Dark Triad male personality is attractive to women and this effect is not mediated by these men’s greater perceived Extraversion or Neuroticism.

References:

  • Cartera GL, Campbell AC, Muncer S. 2014. The Dark Triad personality: Attractiveness to women. Personality and Individual Differences. 56: 57-61. [Abstract] [FullText]

Women are the largest consumers of porn where women are violently raped and abused[edit | edit source]


Dr. Seth Stephens-Davidowitz, a former Google data scientist, was given complete access to PornHub's search and views data. He found that women were more than twice as likely as men to search for videos where women are abused or forced to participate in nonconsensual sex. Women preferred videos with tags like "painful anal crying", "public disgrace", "extreme brutal gangbang", "forced", or "rape".

25% of all straight porn searches by women were for videos featuring violence against women, and 5% of women's searches were for videos where women are raped.

Quotes:

  • A quarter of straight porn searches by women are for videos featuring violence against their own sex.
  • Five percent of searches by women are for content portraying nonconsensual sex.
  • Search rates for these more extreme types of sexual content are at least twice as common among women than men.
  • If there is a genre of porn in which violence is perpetrated against a woman, analysis of the data shows that it almost always appeals disproportionately to women. (Rahman, 2017)

References:

  • Rahman S. 2017. Why Are So Many Women Searching for Ultra-Violent Porn? Vice. [News]
  • Stephens-Davidowitz S. 2017. Everybody Lies: Big Data, New Data, and What the Internet Can Tell Us About Who We Really Are. Dey Street Books.

62% of women have fantasies about rape and other forced sex acts[edit | edit source]


A team of researchers from the University of North Texas and University of Notre Dame played 355 young women a rape fantasy over headphones to investigate how aroused they became:

The tape's material tells the tale of a male protagonist who is strongly attracted to the female character. He expresses a desire for sex with her, but she's clearly unresponsive. He attempts to convince her, without success, and she continues to refuse his advances. The male character then overpowers and rapes her. She resists throughout, and at no time gives consent. However, as the man is attractive to her and provides erotic stimulation, she does experience gratification from the forced sex.

In questioning following this, researchers found that overall, 62% of participants reported having a rape fantasy of some type.

Of the women who reported having the most common rape fantasy ("being overpowered or forced by a man to surrender sexually against my will"), 40% had it at least once a month and 20% had it at least once a week.

Data:

Forced/Rape Sex Act Women With Fantasy
Any forced/rape sex act 62%
Forced sex by a man 52%
Being raped by a man 32%
Forced oral sex by a man 28%
Being incapacitated 24%
Forced anal sex 16%
Forced sex by a woman 17%
Being raped by a woman 9%
Forced oral sex by a woman 9%

Figures:

Women's rape fantasies

References:

Women are drawn more than men to nonfiction stories of rape, murder, and serial killers[edit | edit source]


Women have a greater preference for stories of true crime than men. To evaluate the degree of this preference, researchers analyzed gender proportions of reviews on Amazon for different genres including true crime and war. They found 70% of true crime reviewers were female, while 82% of war reviewers were male, despite an overall relatively even distribution of male and female reviewers on the site in general.

The suggested that the primary reasons women might be interested in these books is for "survival tips" to avoid becoming victims themselves. Associations were found which may suggest this is in part a motivation, but these were very weak. Women's responses on evaluation of how much their reading was for "safety" were not very different from men's, and were greatly inadequate to explain the dramatic gender difference in preference for this material.

They did not attempt to evaluate to what extent female preference for these types of stories relates to other evidence such as that women are more attracted to sociopathic men, men with criminal histories have more consensual female partners, male serial killers are often inundated with female love letters (hybristophilia), women have a disproportionate preference for pornography featuring violence against women, and that most women admit to harboring "rape fantasies."

Quotes:

  • More women than men reviewed books in the true crime genre (70% vs. 30%), w2(1, N ¼ 306) ¼ 22.08, p < .001.
  • More men than women reviewed books in the war genre (82% vs. 18%), w2(1, N ¼ 1,263) ¼ 520.76, p < .001.
  • 95% of the reviews in both the true crime and war categories were positive.
  • When considering stories with violent content, women are drawn to true crime stories more so than are men.

References:

Male serial killers, terrorists, and rapists receive thousands of love letters from women in prison[edit | edit source]


Hybristophilia is a sexual phenomenon that is defined as 'the erotic obsession with or exclusive sexual attraction with an individual who commits extremely heinous or violent crimes such as rape, murder, serial killings etc.'

According to the research that has been conducted in regards to the matter, it is a phenomenon almost completely found in women (see Gurian, 2013, linked below)

Explanations for the women's attraction to these highly violent men range from a nurturing desire to 'fix' these criminals, that they desire the fame/attention that they could receive by association with the criminals and their notorious deeds, but perhaps it is more likely a byproduct of women being wired by their evolutionary past to seek out relationships with dominant and violent 'dark triad' men.

Examples of men who have received numerous love letters and even proposals from women while on trial or imprisoned include:

  • Josef Fritzl - Imprisoned his own daughter in a cellar for 24 years, raping and torturing her, fathering 7 children through her, and murdering one of these offspring.
  • Anders Breivik - Murdered 77 people in terrorist attacks, with the majority of his victims being young teenagers at summer camp.
  • Dzhokhar Tsarnaev - Detonated bombs killing 4 people and injuring 282 more in terrorist attacks.
  • Ted Bundy - Kidnapped, raped, and murdered at least 30 young women and girls, sometimes raping even their corpses.
  • Richard Ramirez - Raped and tortured 25 people and murdered 13 in a spree of home invasions, one of his victims being a 9-year old girl who he beat, raped and then murdered, married one of his many suitors.
  • Chris Watts - Strangled his pregnant wife, then smothered his three and four year old daughters before dumping their bodies.

Quotes:

  • Death Row inmates have no shortage of suitors. In fact, the more notorious the murderer, the less he has to work for female companionship, San Quintin [State Prison] spokesman Eric Messick said.
  • Letters of adoration flow in daily to Death Row inmates from all over the world, some of them 20 handwritten pages long.
  • Richard Allen Davis, the man who kidnapped 12-year-old Polly Klaas from her Petaluma home in 1993 and killed her, "probably gets more mail than most," Messick said. Richard Ramirez, the "Night Stalker" who killed 13 people and has more than a passing interest in Satanism, has women virtually throwing themselves at him despite the fact he is already married.
  • Messick said "99 percent" of correspondence to the condemned is from women. (There doesn't seem to be a similar clamoring among men for women awaiting death. None of the 15 women on the state's female Death Row in Chowchilla has gotten married in prison.)

References:

Male gang members have dramatically more female sexual partners[edit | edit source]


Another study by Palmer and Tilley (1995) for The Journal of Sex Research examining the possible evolutionary motives (i.e access to willing females sexual partners), that prompt young men to join street gangs, revealed that gang members had significantly more consensual sexual partners then a comparable group of non-gang members. It was found that the leaders of these gangs by far had the highest number of sexual partners, with no male non-gang member from the sample coming even close to their high sexual partner count.

Note all of this is despite some evidence that unattractive individuals are disproportionately drawn to a life of crime (NBER, 2006), and vice versa for attractive individuals.

This information is provided solely for evidentiary purposes as regards to the mate selection procedure of female H.Sapiens - it is certainly not encouraged for incels to "thugmaxx" (i.e commit violent crimes) in an attempt to ameliorate their sexual situation.

Quotes:

  • Gang members reported a significantly greater average number of sex partners during the last 30 days than the non-gang members reported for the same period (M of 1.67 to 1.22, respectively); one-tailed t-test, t = 2.16, df = 118, p < .025. […]
  • Two gang leaders […] reported 11 and 10 partners, respectively, [within the last 90 days] […]
  • Many gang members in our study had as many, or more, sex partners in one month than the average male in Laumann et al.'s study had in one year.
  • In contrast, no non-gang member in the study reported more than five partners within the last 90 days.
  • We also predict that leaders of gangs, like leaders in many human societies, not only have sexual access to greater numbers of females, but also more exclusive sexual access to these females.

References:

Childhood bullies experience greater sexual success than non-bullies[edit | edit source]


An article describing two studies conducted by Volk et al. (2015) concluded that "taken together, results from the present study offer mixed, but generally positive, support for our hypothesis that bullying is an evolutionarily adaptive behavior" and noted that "The links between bullying and dating/sexual outcomes are (for the most part) not simply a function of common variance with attractiveness and age or sex, although those variables do play a role in dating and sexual behavior" therefore bullying increased adolescent males mating success independent of other factors like looks, social desirability, etc. The authors advised that "In the meantime, bullying research and interventions should be increasingly cognizant of the fact that bullying may indeed be, at least in part, due to evolved mental adaptations that predispose some individuals to harm others to obtain personal goals. These goals may go beyond social dominance and extend specifically toward obtaining sexual partners."

Another study by Dane et al.(2017) found that "higher extraversion and higher bullying perpetration significantly predicted having had sex" (among the adolescent participants in the study, albeit relying on self-reported data) and "number of sexual partners was significantly positively correlated with bullying ... in both samples" (correlation of r=.34 with bullying and number of sexual partners among older adolescents).

Thus it seems apparent that a tendency towards bullying is seen as an attractive trait by a significant number of women (at least adolescent girls), and this may even be independent of the traits such a tendency displays (i.e 'dark triad' traits, higher level of social dominance).

References:

More than half of prison staff sexual misconduct involves female guards/staff[edit | edit source]


According to US prison guidelines, "staff sexual misconduct" includes any seemingly consensual act or behavior of a sexual nature directed toward an inmate by staff, including romantic relationships. Such acts include intentional touching of the genitalia, anus, groin, breast, inner thigh, or buttocks with the intent to abuse, arouse, or gratify sexual desire; completed, attempted, threatened, or requested sexual acts; and occurrences of indecent exposure, invasion of privacy, or staff voyeurism for sexual gratification.

This is differentiated form "nonconsensual sexual acts" and "abusive sexual acts" which are considered in a different manner.

A 2014 US prison audit found that 54% of all incidents of staff sexual misconduct (i.e consensual sexual relationships with prisoners) were perpetrated by females. Of all substantiated incidents involving female staff, 84% appeared to be fully consensual.

Quotes:

  • 54% of incidents of staff sexual misconduct were perpetrated by females.
  • In state and federal prisons, 67% of inmate victims of staff sexual misconduct or harassment were male, while 58% of staff perpetrators were female.
  • Among all substantiated incidents between 2009 and 2011, 84% of those perpetrated by female staff, compared to 37% of those perpetrated by male staff, involved a sexual relationship that “appeared to be willing.”

References:

39% of hospitalized male psychopaths had consensual sex with female mental health staff[edit | edit source]


Carl B. Gacono, PhD et al. (1995) published a small study for the The Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law comparing "select behavior indices between hospitalized insanity acquittees (N = 18) and hospitalized insanity acquittees who successfully malingered (N =18)". The study authors called the malingerers 'severe psychopaths', which was also evidenced by the fact that all of these malingerers engaged in physical or verbal violence against the staff of the facility, and that many of them were convicted rapists, murderers etc.

They found that these severe psychopaths were so likely to have consensual sexual relations with female staff, that in fact 39% had such consensual relations with female mental health staff when this was evaluated. Some (the precise figure is not mentioned) even married the female staff members.

Data:

Behavioural infractions committed by control group and malingerers 'severe psychopaths'.

Comparison Subjects Severe Psychopaths
Verbally/physically assaultive 17% 100%
Specialized treatment plan 0% 35%
Sex/marriage with female staff 0% 39%
Drug dealing within institution 0% 44%
Escaped 11% 17%

Quotes:

  • The malingerers were significantly more likely to have a history of murder or rape, carry a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder or sexual sadism, and produce greater PCL-R factor 1, factor 2, and total scores than insanity acquittees who did not malinger.
  • The malingerers were also significantly more likely to be verbally or physically assaultive, require specialized treatment plans to control their aggression, have sexual relations with female staff, 39% had such consensual relations with female mental health staff, deal drugs, and be considered an escape risk within the forensic hospital.

References:

Men who exhibit antisocial behaviors reproduce more successfully [edit | edit source]


A study conducted in the United Kingdom on behalf of the Society for Research in Child Development by Jaffee et al. (2003) using 'data from an epidemiological sample of 1,116 5-year-old twin pairs and their parents', remarked the following: "Second, despite the fact that fathers who engage in high levels of antisocial behavior make up a small proportion of fathers overall, they are responsible for a disproportionate number of births. For example, Moffitt and colleagues (2002) found that although men who engaged in high levels of antisocial behavior constituted only 10% of a birth cohort, they accounted for 27% of the babies fathered by the time the men were age 26".

References:

Women desiring marriage and commitment are more attracted to narcissistic men[edit | edit source]


Haslam & Montrose (2015) conducted a survey of 146 British females asking them to rate their agreement with a series of statements intended to measure their attraction to narcissism in a potential male partner. The statements were based on the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) a psychological test designed to measure the level of "sub-clinical narcissism" in an individual.

The researchers found:

  • Women wishing to get married were more attracted to the narcissistic male personality (mean rank = 77.82) than those not desiring marriage (mean rank = 59.81.)
  • Women with a higher number of sexual partners were significantly more attracted to the narcissistic male personality.
  • All of this is despite it being previously demonstrated that narcissistic mates are more likely to be unfaithful and narcissism is associated with a lack of relational commitment.

References:

Female narcissism reduces marital quality for men, but male narcissism does not for women[edit | edit source]


Lavner et al (2016) gathered longitudinal data from a community sample of 146 newlywed couples assessed 6 times over the first 4 years of marriage to assess how narcissism in men and women differentially affected marriage quality and outcomes.

They measured partner characteristics of narcissism to determine the degree to which couples were matched on narcissism and related traits. Then they examined how narcissism predicted the trajectory of marital quality over time, testing narcissism's association with initial levels of relationship functioning and changes in relationship functioning.

It was found that high degrees of female narcissism predicted a decline in marital quality and satisfaction over time. However, male narcissism did not negatively affect marital quality or satisfaction.

This would seem to imply men are greatly bothered by narcissistic wives, but women are not so typically bothered by narcissistic husbands. This conclusion is in keeping with evidence reviewed that women find narcissistic men more attractive and actively seek them as husbands.

Quotes:

  • Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that wives' total narcissism and entitlement/exploitativeness scores predicted the slope of marital quality over time, including steeper declines in marital satisfaction and steeper increases in marital problems.
  • Husbands' narcissism scores generally had few effects on their own marital quality or that of their wives.

References:

Men are attracted to "nice" women, but women are not attracted to "nice" men[edit | edit source]


Researchers sought to evaluate niceness by defining it as: "a characteristic that may signal to potential partners that one understands, values and supports important aspects of their self-concept and is willing to invest resources in the relationship." In other words, niceness is the degree to which a person understands, values, and supports his partner's identity and values and is willing to put commitment and effort into the relationship. This is also known in psychology as "responsiveness."

The researchers found that men who perceived possible female partners as responsive found them to be "more feminine and more attractive." They also found that when men found women to be responsive, it led to a heightened sexual arousal from the men and greater desire for a relationship.

On the other hand, when women perceived their male partner to be more responsive, they were less attracted to the man.

The Internet is full of women claiming the reason they "don't give nice guys a chance" is that those "nice guys" are not actually truly "nice". The more scientifically valid explanation for this behavior based on these findings is that a man's niceness does not appear to be sexually valued by women at all.

Quotes:

  • Responsiveness may signal to a potential partner that one is concerned with her or his welfare, and may therefore increase sexual interest in this person.
  • Research shows, however, that this proposition holds true for men, but not for women.
  • Men, but not women, perceived a responsive stranger as more attractive.
  • Responsiveness increased men’s perception of partner’s femininity.

References:

Mental[edit | edit source]

69% of high functioning autistic adolescents want relationships, but almost none succeed[edit | edit source]


The parents of 190 adolescents with high and low functioning autism were surveyed to evaluate the adolescents' perspectives around sexuality.

The adolescents upon whom parents were reporting were predominantly Caucasian (89.3%) males (86.8%) with a median age of 14 years (M = 14.51, SD = 1.96).

Findings were:

  • 69.2% of adolescents with high functioning autism expressed desire for a dating relationship.
  • 73.1% with high functioning autism expressed attraction to someone of the opposite sex, and 10.0% to the same sex.
  • However, only 7.7% of this high functioning autistic cohort reported having had a relationship with someone of the opposite sex, and 1.5% with someone of the same sex.
  • Only 1.5% of the group had sex.

Overall this group showed a normal amount of desire for sexual relationships, but a disproportionately low capacity to achieve them.

References:

  • Graham Holmes, Laura & Himle, Michael. (2014). Brief Report: Parent-Child Sexuality Communication and Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. 44. [Abstract] [FullText]

44.6% of high functioning adult autistic men remain virgins, despite high sex/relationship drive[edit | edit source]


A group of high functioning autistic men and women were evaluated and compared with healthy controls to assess their sexual and relationship desires and success/failure to achieve those desires.

44.6% of autistic men were found to still virgins among a sample with the average age being 35.7 years.

Autistic men were found to masturbate more and have a greater desire for a relationship than normal neurotypical (NT) men. However, only 16% of autistic men were in a relationship while 82% of NT men were in a relationship. NT men were 5x more likely to be in a relationship than their autistic counterparts.

Autism did not so greatly reduce women's ability to find relationships with men, as 46% of women were able to have relationships, while only 16% of men were.

This is likely due to the fact that autism reduces an individual's capacity for emotional interaction, but normal men crave emotional interaction less than normal women, so this will disproportionately impair an autistic man's attempts to find a relationship vs. an autistic woman's. It could also be that Autistic men are more likely to be shunned then Autistic women, either because the behavioral traits of Autism are less apparent in females compared to males, or that these women are seen as having an inherent social value due to their innate reproductive resources that Autistic men don't have.

Autistic men were also burdened with a dramatically greater number of paraphilias which are considered "socially taboo". These paraphilias which appear to be part of their disease state can only be imagined to make their difficulties in finding sexual and romantic success more difficult.

Quotes:

  • Male ASD participants reported more frequent masturbation than male healthy controls (HCs) (P<0.01).
  • ASD men reported a greater sexual desire for sexual intercourse than their HC counterparts (P<0.05, Table III).
  • Of the individuals with ASD, significantly more women (n=18; 46.2%) than men (n=9; 16.1%) were currently in a relationship

References:

Normal people are less willing to interact with Autists and find them less physically attractive[edit | edit source]


Sasson et al. (2017) conducted a series of studies with a similar methodology consisting of groups of ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) and NT (Neurotypical) peers in various modes of social interaction consisting of 'thin slices'. The study discussed here consisted of forty adult (20 ASD; 20 NT;17 males each group) participants.

The participants were comparable in IQ as measured by the WASI test (Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence) and age. The participants were made to record a 60 second mock audition for a fictional reality television program, which were edited into five presentation modalities: (1) audio-only (2) visual-only (3) audio-visual (4) static image and (5) transcript of speech content. This allowed the researchers to examine which elements of the participants presentation styles contributed to the first impressions of observers.

The participants were then rated by a group of volunteers (who weren't informed of the clinical diagnoses of the ASD participants) in the form of an online survey. Each stimulus was rated one at a time on ten items using a four-point scale (0–3), on a number of socially desirable traits that are accurately assessed at first acquaintance: attractiveness, awkwardness, intelligence, likeability, trustworthiness, and dominance.

It was found that ASD participants were perceived more negatively on a number of the socially desirable traits examined, including attractiveness, likability, and dominance.

Quotes:

  • Our findings show that negative first impressions of adults with ASD occurred only when audio and/or visual information was present, and not when the transcript of their speech content was evaluated. This discrepancy suggests that social presentation style rather than the substantive content of social speech drove negative impression formation of individuals with ASD.
  • Supporting this conclusion, a static image was sufficient for generating negative first impressions of those with ASD and including additional information, such as body movement or voice, did not worsen them further.
  • However, negative impressions did not occur for all evaluated traits, with the two groups not differing on ratings of perceived intelligence or trustworthiness
  • In turn, this may limit opportunities in ASD for developing social connections and friendships, as well as the intergroup contact necessary for mitigating negative biases when present.
  • Based on evidence in the literature and the data presented here, we propose that negative first impressions of ASD are not founded on any one feature of expression, but rather represent an effect of subtle physical, dynamic, and auditory cues of presentation that can also include additional features, such as clothing choices, grooming habits, gaze patterns, or body posture.

References:

  • Sasson, N. J. Faso, D. J. Nugent, J. Lovell, S. Kennedy, D. P. Grossman, R. B. 2019. Neurotypical Peers are Less Willing to Interact with Those with Autism based on Thin Slice Judgments. Scientific Reports Volume 7, Article number: 40700. [FullText]

Autistic men have 10 times as many suicidal thoughts as normal men[edit | edit source]


Autism is a mental health condition that disproportionately affects men and often results in the sufferers of the conditions social isolation. Numerous studies show the harms of autism are deep and painful to those who must bear them. Autistic individuals are subjected to at least 4-5x as much bullying as normal children. Autistic children report 28x more suicidal ideation or attempts compared to normal children. Autistic adults report nearly 10 times as many suicidal thoughts. Overall, people with autism are 7.55 times more likely to die by suicide.

Due to the social deficits of those with this condition, and lack of human connection often concomitant with this illness, it could be reasonably argued that autists are among the most marginalized groups in society, particularly autistic males. Based on above data previously reviewed, a significant percent of male autists will die never having experienced anything close to resembling a loving romantic relationship, or indeed having experienced sexual intercourse at all.

Quotes:

  • About 46% of autistic children in middle and high school told their parents they were victimized at school within the previous year, compared with just over 10% of children in the general population.
  • Percent of children with autism (1-16 year olds) for whom suicide ideation or attempts was rated as sometimes to very often a problem by mothers (14%) was 28 times greater than that for typical children.
  • Compared with the general population, adults with Asperger’s syndrome were nearly 10 times more likely to report suicidal thoughts. They were also significantly more likely to have these thoughts than people with one, two, or more medical illnesses, or people with a psychotic illness.
  • People with ASD were 7.55 times more likely to die by suicide. People with high-functioning ASD were at greater risk of suicide than low-functioning groups.

References:

High IQ men are more likely to remain virgins longer[edit | edit source]


Studies assessing the relation of IQ to sexual success in America have found that both adolescent men and women have higher rates of virginity when they have high IQ.

For instance, a study conducted by Halpern et. al (2000) that used a total sample of n=11,696 adolescents from two longitudinal surveys of adolescent health and sexual behavior, measured the IQs of participants using a simple and equivalent measure of IQ -The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test Revised (PPVT–R) - which has a correlation of .64 with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, indicating that the test is a good measure of g, i.e general intelligence.

Combining this measure with reports of sexual activity, sexual maturation, and mother's level of education, a statistical analysis of the data revealed that the most sexually successful individuals seem to be those with an IQ of 70-110. This IQ range consists of the borderline mentally impaired at the lower end (70, an IQ below this threshold is generally considered to constitute an intellectual disability) to somewhat above average (110) at the higher end. The peak was at the 75-90 IQ range for males, with these males being found to be the least likely to be virgins as adolescents.

At the low end of the spectrum, an interesting trend emerges, as we see that low IQs affect male and female sexual activity differently. 46.7% of low IQ men were sexually active, while only 18.4% of low IQ women were. Thus low IQ men were 2.5x as likely as low IQ women to be sexually successful.

This would suggest that high IQ impairs both men and women from sexual success, but low IQ does not as greatly impair men's sexual success as it would for a woman.

Quotes:

  • 63.3% of adolescent men and 81.6% of women with IQ scores below average have never had sex and most have had fewer experiences of romantic attraction.
  • An adolescent with an IQ score of 100 was 1.5 to 5 times more likely to have had intercourse than an adolescent with an above average score of about 120 to 130.
  • Controlling for age, physical maturity, and mother’s education, a significant curvilinear relationship between intelligence and coital status was demonstrated;adolescents at the upper and lower ends of the intelligence distribution were less likely to have sex. Higher intelligence was also associated with postponement of the initiation of the full range of partnered sexual activities.

References:

Teenage boys with ADHD have double the amount of sexual partners vs. 'normal' teens[edit | edit source]


A cohort study with a massive sample size (Østergaard et al.;(2017) N = 2,698,052) based on data taken from Danish government statistics found:

  • Compared with individuals without ADHD, those with ADHD were significantly more likely to become parents at 12 to 16 years of age (IRR for females 3.62, 95% CI 2.14–6.13; IRR for males 2.30, 95% CI 1.27–4.17) and at 17 to 19 years of age (IRR for females 1.94, 95% CI 1.62–2.33; IRR for males 2.27, 95% CI 1.90–2.70) i.e boys with ADHD are more then twice as likely to be fathers in their teens.

Another study by Rokeach & Wiener(2018) consisting of "A community sample of 58 participants (30 ADHD, 28 Comparison), ages 13 to 18, completed questionnaires assessing various features of romantic relationships" replicated the findings of the above study by concluding:

  • Males with ADHD reported their age of first intercourse to be nearly 2 years sooner than NT peers.
  • Irrespective of gender, adolescents with ADHD had nearly double the number of lifetime sexual partners.

Therefore, the greater number of children born to adolescents with ADHD is not due to them being less likely to use birth control as compared to NT (neurotypical) peers due to their impulsive nature, but because they have a much greater (2x) number of sexual partners.

Barring any further evidence that boys with ADHD are more physically attractive then NTs, their greater number of partners is most likely due to greater effort levels (i.e more courtship effort) and quite likely higher perceived social dominance, greater impulsivity (https://scholarship.richmond.edu/honors-theses/987/ study demonstrating link between ADHD and a low arousal threshold; also found in psychopaths) and their greater chance of being perpetrators of violent acts.

References:

Cluster-B personality disorders lead to 3.5x as many sexual partners and more offspring[edit | edit source]


Guitiérrez et al. (2013) conducted a study in order to determine if the various personality disorder clusters - Type A (Schizoid, Odd), Type B (Narcissistic, Anti-social) and Type C (Avoidant, OCD) - were solely detrimental in terms of life outcomes for the individuals with these personality disorders (PDs,) or if they instead presented their sufferers with various potentially adaptive benefits, such as greater sexual and social opportunities.

A sample of psychiatric outpatients (n=738, 53% female, mean age 34.1 yrs, SD 10.9) were presented with a questionnaire designed to measure the presence and intensity of the ten personality disorders, and a further questionnaire designed to broadly measure various life outcomes; such as number of sexual partners, employment, income, health and so on.

A multiple linear regression performed by the researchers on the data was used by the authors to estimate the contribution of the PD scores to various life outcomes.

While finding that in general, PDs were resulting in more negative life outcomes broadly, there were some potentially evolutionary adaptive benefits that seemed to accrue to bearers of these disorders.

Namely, those individuals high in type-B personality cluster traits (Narcissism, Anti-Social, Borderline, Histrionic,) of both sexes has 3.5x as many mates as low B subjects, with five times as many short-term mates and twice as many long term mates. It was also found that those higher in cluster B had 39% more offspring then those lower in cluster B traits.

Thus it can be surmised that these personality traits, with all their concomitant negative outcomes; both for the bearers of these disorders and their potential victims, are most likely being significantly sexually selected for in various modern societies.

Quotes:

  • PDs even brought some fitness advantages: Whereas reduced fertility in other mental disorders had been mainly attributed to lower marriage rates ... our high-PD subjects had 32% more mates.
  • The strength of these relationships should not be underestimated: Explained variance lies within the range of 1-5.7% usually found in phenotypic selection studies, in both humans and nonhumans.
  • Further supporting a sexual selection scenario, our high-B subjects out-reproduced low-B by 39%.
  • Likewise, high status, a strong priority for high-C subjects, has often been related in post-industrial societies to quality- rather then quantity-based mating and reproduction.
  • In the literature however, Cluster A disorders are not reported to be completely detrimental. For example, A subjects have been found to spend more time in romantic relationships and to have more frequent or earlier parenthood. Likewise, some components of schizotypy seem to increase mating success ... more data on A traits are clearly needed.

References:

Race[edit | edit source]

See also: Racepill

Women are more racist in online dating, and 92-95% with a "preference" exclude any ethnic men[edit | edit source]


Yahoo Personals Dating Preferences Study sought to examine the dating preferences of online daters in four major metropolitan areas: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Atlanta. Internet daters' profiles of self-identified Asian, Black, Latino, and White men and women seeking opposite-sex dates were collected and coded from Yahoo Personals, which was the most popular national online dating web site in 2004 and 2005.

Women were considerably more likely than men to state they had a "racial preference". 74% of the 2735 women voiced a "racial preference", while 58% of the 2872 men voiced a "racial preference".

Among those women with a racial preference:

  • When considering a man of a different race from their own: 95% excluded Indian men, 94% excluded middle eastern men, 92% excluded Asian men, 87% excluded black men, 69% excluded Latino men, and 42% excluded white men.
  • The women who only wanted to date men of their own race were: 65% of white women, 45% of black women, 16.5% of Latino women, and 6% of Asian women.
  • The women who excluded their own race were: 4% of white women, 8% of black women, 17% of Latino women, and 40% of Asian women.

Thus we can see that among this group, women employed a racial hierarchy for men in interracial dating of: White > Latino > Black > Asian > Middle Eastern > Indian. White women were the least likely to exclude their own race (4%) and most likely to only want their own race (65%). Asian women were most likely to exclude their own race (40%) and least likely to only want their own race (6%).

Women's interracial rejection rates of men were as follows:

  • East Indian (95%) > Middle Eastern (94%) > Asian (92%) > Black (87%) > Latino (69%) > White (42%)

Data:

Women
White Blacks Latinos Asians Total
States a Racial Preference (%) 71.9 77.0 74.2 73.1 74.2
Among Those With A Racial Preference (%):
Excludes East Indians 96.1 94.0 96.4 94.7 95.3
Excludes Middle Easterners 94.9 95.2 93.5 92.1 94.0
Excludes Asians 92.8 92.2 92.3 - 92.4
Excludes Blacks 91.6 - 76.4 94.4 87.2
Excludes Latinos 77.1 63.1 - 72.7 68.9
Excludes Whites - 76.2 32.9 11.1 42.2
Prefers Same Race Only 65.4 45.0 16.5 6.0 33.8
Excludes Own Race 4.3 7.8 16.5 40.0 16.5

Figures:

The acceptability rates of men's races among women with a "racial preference" in interracial dating

References:

Women are more racist than men in speed dating, and find Asian men least physically attractive[edit | edit source]


More than 400 graduate and professional students participated in speed dating sessions at Columbia University. The researchers found that while men did not show any strong race preferences, women of all races demonstrated significant racial biases.

They found the greatest female racial bias was against Asian men, and this was also associated with a general consensus from all women that Asian men were the least physically attractive overall. Even Asian women found white, black, and Hispanic men to be more attractive than Asian men. As with most studies, white men were the most attractive to women overall.

Data:

Fraction of women who said 'yes' to a further date, broken down by race of subject and partner:

Female Subject Race Acceptance (%) of Male Partner Races
White Black Hispanic Asian All Races
White 0.38 0.27 0.27 0.16 0.33
Black 0.47 0.89 0.63 0.31 0.48
Hispanic 0.38 0.42 0.50 0.23 0.37
Asian 0.45 0.40 0.42 0.44 0.44
All Races 0.40 0.36 0.36 0.25 0.37

Quotes:

  • Even in a population of relatively progressive individuals who have self-selected into participation in a multi-cultural Speed Dating event, we observe strong racial preferences.
  • Women of all races exhibit strong same race preferences, while men of no race exhibit a statistically significant same race preference.
  • The observed difference seems to reflect a genuine disparity in men’s and women’s willingness to be with a partner of a different race.
  • For male partners, Asians generally receive lower ratings than men of other races. In fact, when we run the regressions separately for each race, we find that even Asian women find white, black, and Hispanic men to be more attractive than Asian men.
  • Given that Asian men were the group that other races expressed strongest preference against, and that Asian women expressed the least preference against other races, the results suggest that attractiveness may play an important role in the determination of racial preferences.

References:

White men get 11-14 times as much interest from women on Tinder vs. equivalent Asian men[edit | edit source]


An experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of race on male success on Tinder by pitting top Asian male model Godfrey Gao against top white male model Matthew Noszka, and two normal friends of Asian and white descent against one another as well for a more "typical" case comparison.

Fake Tinder profiles for each individual were created in an American city, and 5000 women were automatically swiped for acceptance in each case.

Results were as follows:

  • The white male model received 4.4x as many matches and 11.5x as many messages as the Asian male model.
  • The white friend received 3.6x as many matches and 14x as many messages as the Asian friend.

Most remarkably, the white friend who was chosen to represent a "normal" young white man received 1.8 times as many matches and 4.7 times as many messages as the Asian male model, indicating a normal white man is dramatically more desirable to women on Tinder than a top Asian male model.

i.e. Even a top Asian male model cannot compete with a regular white man in the Tinder sexual marketplace.

Data:

Part 1 of Tinder race experiment comparing white and Asian top male models:

Tinder-Asian-Experiment-Model-White.jpg Tinder-Asian-Experiment-Model-Asian.jpg
White Asian White/Asian Multiplier
Swipes 5000 5000 -
Matches 342 77 4.44
Match Rate 6.84% 1.54% 4.44
Messages 46 4 11.5

Part 2 of Tinder race experiment comparing white and Asian friends:

Tinder-Asian-Experiment-Friend-White.jpg Tinder-Asian-Experiment-Friend-Asian.jpg
White Asian White/Asian Multiplier
Swipes 5000 5000 -
Matches 141 39 3.62
Match Rate 2.82% 0.78% 3.62
Messages 14 1 14

References:

Being an Asian male in the USA is a primary predictor of 'never being kissed' [edit | edit source]


A study by Lefkowitz, Weschechelom and Leavitt (2018) consisting of a self report survey of sexual behaviour among 'first year university students' found that compared to their peers who had kissed partners, young adults who had never kissed were more likely to be Asian-American, less likely to be in a romantic relationship, were less extraverted, were more likely to be in the Honors College, and drank alcohol less frequently.

References:

Asian women marry interracially more than twice as often as Asian men[edit | edit source]


The 2010 Pew Research Center Report (U.S. Census Bureau’s 2010 American Community Survey) investigated trends that year in interracial marriage. Their primary findings confirmed trends seen in other research which indicate Asian men are the least desirable to women, and black women are the least desirable to men. Overall, whites were also shown to be the least likely to interracially marry of any race. There were no gender differences in white/Hispanic interracial marriage rates overall.

The primary date showed:

  • 9.4% of whites, 17.1% of blacks, 25.7% of Hispanics and 27.7% of Asians married someone whose race was different from their own.
  • 24% of black males married outside their race, compared with just 9% of black females.
  • 36% of Asian females married outside their race, compared with just 17% of Asian males.
  • There were no gender differences in intermarriage rates among whites and Hispanics.

Of note, in the Yahoo Personals study reviewed above, 40% of Asian women who stated that they had a racial preference in dating excluded Asian men. Given that marriage data shows 36% of Asian women marry outside their race, it seems a large portion of Asian women don't just promise not to date Asian men, they follow through on it right to marriage.

References:

Asian men have half the relationships as white men due to women's "racial hierarchy"[edit | edit source]


Data from the data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) was evaluated to examine romantic and sexual involvement among young adults, most of who were between the ages of 25 to 32 (n = 11,555).

Overall, white men had the highest odds of being in a relationship, followed in order by Hispanic, black and Asian men. In fact, it was found that Asian men were half as likely as white men to be currently involved with a romantic partner, even after controlling for a wide array of characteristics. Asian women by contrast did not suffer any reduced odds of being in a relationship compared to white women.

Researchers concluded that the dramatically lower odds of an Asian man finding a relationship are due to the racial hierarchies women employ in judging men.

Data:

Man's Race Odds Ratio of Being in a Romantic/Sexual Relationship
White 1.0
Hispanic 0.895-0.967
Black 0.738-0.769
Asian 0.474-0.586

Quotes:

  • Asian women were half as likely as Asian men to be unpartnered (i.e., 18% versus 35%).
  • Asian men, but not black or Hispanic men, exhibit significantly lower odds of involvement than white men. Specifically, they have roughly half the odds of current involvement as white men.
  • We found no evidence that socioeconomic resources or physical characteristics were driving the lower levels of involvement among Asian men. Instead, our findings are consistent with the notion that Asian American men are at the bottom of the racial hierarchy when it comes to the different-sex dating market.
  • If “Asian cultural values” account for differences in romantic partnership formation, we would have found similar patterns for Asian women as Asian men. In fact, the opposite was true.
  • Our results suggest that the racial hierarchy framework best explains lower likelihood of involvement among Asian American men.
  • A racial hierarchy explanation suggests that Asian American men will be less likely than Asian American women to be partnered, as Asian American men face gendered cultural stereotypes barring them from entry into romantic partnerships.

References:

Women reply most online to white men and least to Indian men[edit | edit source]


Data published by OK Cupid shows women overall have the highest probability of replying to white men and the lowest probability of replying to Indian men. Similarly to the plight of Southeast Asian men, Indian women were actually least likely to reply to an Indian men of any race of women, showing all races of women are eager to discriminate against Indian men in dating, including especially women of the same race.

The poor performance of Indian American men occurs despite the fact that (contrary to popular modern negative cultural stereotypes of Indian Americans) Indian Americans are the highest educated class in America and 40.6% of Indian Americans over 25 have graduate or professional degrees. Indian Americans are also the highest earning class in America, earning 1.78x the average income. Indian Americans are also among the most likely to have liberal views in America, with 65% liberal and 18% conservative (Pew 2014). If these were things that truly mattered most to women, one might expect better performance for Indian men in online dating.

The performance of middle eastern men was higher in this data set than others, and the performance of Hispanic men somewhat lower. However, a clear consensus from all online dating data emerges that women consistently prefer white men most of all and are generally most likely to reject Asian and Indian men based solely on their races. To women, it appears there are white men, and then there is everyone else.

The converse gender data showed men were least likely to reply to black women, but otherwise equally likely to reply to any other race of women. Despite this disadvantage for black women, black women had a reply rate that was 1.65x Indian men's, 1.58x black men's, 1.54x Asian men's, and 1.17x white men's. Thus this data demonstrates that even the most disadvantaged race of women experiences considerably greater success online than even the most preferred race of men.

Figures:

Quotes:

  • Indian Americans are among the most highly educated racial or ethnic groups in the U.S. 70% of Indian Americans aged 25 and older had college degrees in 2010, by far the highest rate among the six Asian-American groups studied and 2.5 times the rate among the overall U.S. population. More recent (2013) data from the American Community Survey provides more detail: 40.6% of Indian Americans 25 and older have graduate or professional degrees, and 32.3% have bachelor’s degrees; an additional 10.4% have some college education. Median annual household income for Indian Americans in 2010 was $88,000, much higher than for all Asian Americans ($66,000) and all U.S. households ($49,800). 65% of Indian Americans were Democrats or leaned toward the Democrats, making them the Asian-American subgroup most likely to identify with the Democratic Party. (Pew 2014)

References:

Whiter, golden, & rosier (ie. Caucasian) skin is interpreted as healthier and more attractive[edit | edit source]


Scientific research demonstrates the global preference for whiter skin and "white standard" of beauty by which all races are judged is likely biological.

To remove racial bias from the equation, researchers asked Caucasian participants to change the skin color of Caucasian male and female faces on a computer screen to make them look as healthy as possible. The participants overwhelmingly increased the rosiness, yellowness and brightness of the subjects' skin. Past research from the same team showed this same preference in other races as well, where South Africans also tended to judge rosier faces as healthier.

A combination of bright, rosy, and golden skin is suggested to represent an objective biological indicator of health. This is likely ingrained in the human species from an evolutionary perspective, as the same preference has been observed in nonhuman animals.

Quotes:

  • Stephen and his colleagues asked 54 Caucasian participants to change the skin color of about 50 male and female faces on a computer screen to make them look as healthy as possible. Hands down, the participants tended to increase the rosiness, yellowness and brightness of the skin.
  • Participants increased skin redness, providing additional support for previous findings that skin blood color enhances the healthy appearance of faces. Participants also increased skin yellowness and lightness, suggesting a role for high carotenoid and low melanin coloration in the healthy appearance of faces. The color preferences described here resemble the red and yellow color cues to health displayed by many species of nonhuman animals.
  • The results would likely hold for other ethnicities as well. For instance, past research has shown black South Africans tend to judge rosier faces as healthier. And forthcoming research suggests the same may hold for yellowness and lightness of facial skin.
  • Effectively health and attractiveness are pretty much the same thing.

References:

An Asian face is more "similar to that of an infant" than other races[edit | edit source]


Researchers analyzing racial facial differences have observed that adult Asian facial structures are more similar to those of infants than other races. A person's degree of resemblance to an infant is termed "neoteny." Neoteny is a female sexually dimorphic trait, meaning that increased neoteny can make a face look more feminine.

This observation of greater neoteny among Asian facial structures in general may help to explain a large degree of women's disregard for Asian men. Having a more neotenous or infantile face may benefit Asian women while hindering Asian men.

Quotes:

  • The facial structure of Asians is similar to that of an infant, including a wider and rounder face, higher eyebrow, fuller upper lid, lower nasal bridge with horizontally placed flared ala, flatter malar prominence and midface, fuller and more protuberant lips, and more receded chin.

References:

Racism in dating is stable or worsening, not improving, over time[edit | edit source]


OK Cupid analyzed racial dating data from 2009 and 2014 to evaluate if racism in dating changed over that time frame. They found that although people reported they are more open to dating people of other races over that time frame, racially motivated behaviors actually intensified.

Thus while it seems apparent people are becoming more interested in portraying themselves as less racially motivated, this is not manifesting in any changes to their actual dating behavior. If anything, their underlying racism has intensified.

One must wonder whether it is preferable to suffer racism that is openly acknowledged, or to falsely be told racism doesn't exist but still suffer from it anyway.

Quotes:

  • OkCupid users are certainly no more open-minded than they used to be. If anything, racial bias has intensified a bit.
  • One interesting thing is to compare [users' racial behaviors] with what those same users have told us about their racial attitudes.
  • Answers to match questions have been getting significantly less biased over time [i.e. "Do you strongly prefer to date someone of your own race?" and "Is interracial marriage a bad idea?"]
  • And yet the underlying behavior has stayed the same.

References:

Female porn actresses 'racially dodge' scenes with Black male actors or demand a premium[edit | edit source]


There exists a long-lasting stereotype that Black males are more sexually desired and potent then men of other races - often due to an implied view of them as being inherently more bestial in nature- particularly Whites, which is an apparent dynamic frequently exploited by those with cuckold fetish. In the modern era, this stereotype is heavily promulgated and influenced by the widespread availability of interracial pornographic films, namely those featuring Caucasian female actresses engaging in sex acts with Black actors.

However, in the porn industry it is commonly held that participating in interracial pornography with Black men is the 'final frontier' for a Caucasian female actress, such is the aversion of some female actresses to engaging in acts of this nature. This is despite the reputation of participating in pornographic films is itself still generally highly socially undesirable.

The porn star James Deen reported that female porn actresses or their agents frequently refused to perform scenes with Black men, and those actresses that did agree to perform such scenes frequently demanded large premiums for doing so. Apparently, the standard premium that female actresses receive for performing such scenes is 43% greater then the premium commonly requested for scenes involving concurrent penetrations.

Landes & Nielsen (2018) submitted the issue to an academic analysis. They found that of a study of 10,000 porn actresses, showed that while 87% do facial and 62% do anal, only 53% do interracial. They found while 'racial-dodging' as they called it was no longer frequently openly practiced as in the past, it was still rampant in the porn industry.

The authors stated the issue was one of actresses performing scenes with male actors of Sub-Saharan ancestry, with other racial minorities like Hispanics and Asians not generally being effected by these exclusionist policies. It was also exclusively a problem faced by Black actors - while Black actresses generally had lower pay then whites for the same type of scenes - there was no major trend of non-black actors avoiding Black actresses.

The authors argued that the frequently reported explanations for avoiding such scenes could be broken into four main categories:

  • Individual preference (lack of physical attraction)
  • Collective prejudice (fear of social ostracism or shaming for engaging in sex acts with Black males)
  • 'Moral concern' (claiming not to perform interracial scenes because of a concern that they often portrayed in an overly stereotypical, almost minstrel-esque fashion, and thus fuel detrimental racial stereotypes)
  • Professional reasons (to fear offending their fan base, and the fact that the actresses who star in such scenes are frequently considered 'spoiled goods', and that reputation results in a lower market price for their sexual services. This motive is questioned in its validity by some Black porn actors - such as Lexington Steel, who claims that the economic detriment of having starred in interracial scenes is frequently exaggerated.

Thus it seems apparent than even the most erotically successful black men on earth cannot escape women's racial selection biases, paying a toll in less opportunity and increased costs when they are allowed to participate.

Quotes:

  • This hierarchy usually proceeds according to which sex acts are considered most taboo and, sometimes, most physically demanding for the female performer. But "interracial" porn, which is frequently seen as the ultimate feat for an actress, is held out as more extreme not because of which body part goes where but because the adult industry reflects the old attitude society still holds on to — that the color of a sexual partner's skin can by itself make the act forbidden.
  • Deen recently had an actress request an extra $500 to perform with a black man. In the case of contracts with big companies, female stars can get $2,000-plus for their first "IR" scene, according to one black performer who asked to remain anonymous so as to not associate that rate with the agency that employs him.
  • The extent of racial dodging is not yet clearly established. The proportion of ‘dodgers’ claimed varies depending on the talent agency, ranging from almost 80% (LA Direct Models) down to 20% (Spiegler Girls.) A study of metadata on 10,000 porn actresses showed that while 87% do facial and 62% do anal, only 53% do interracial.

References:

Across Europe, whites are most desired online, then Hispanics, Asians, Africans, and Arabs last[edit | edit source]


To assess racial preferences in Europe, researches analyzed anonymized profile and preference information of users registered at the eDarling online dating site. In an agreement with the company, data was accessed for all users in September 2011. Researchers performed their analyses on a total pooled sample of 58,880 heterosexual members drawn from an original sample of 876,658 heterosexual site users.

When filling in their dating profiles, users were offered the same list of racial choices in all nine countries studied, both in terms of own racial background and preferred race for partner. The question regarding partner’s race asked, "Of which ethnicity (or origin) do you want the person you are searching for to be?"

The seven categories offered were: European, African, Asian, Arabic, Indian, Hispanic (Latin American), or other. The Indian and Asian categories were combined into a broader Asian category and the other category was excluded as it could not be clear what it represented.

Based on a multivariate logistic regression model, controlling for education, gender, age, religion, marital history, importance of partner’s race, long-term dating intentions, type of membership, and country, a clear racial hierarchy emerged similar to the American data from the Yahoo Personals study above, with only a different rank position for blacks.

The racial hierarchy of desirability in this study across Europe was established as:

  • White > Hispanic > Asian > Black > Middle Eastern

It should be noted that this data represented both men and women combined. The researchers did not provide a gendered breakdown of preferences. Asian women are consistently more desirable than Asian men and black men more than black women in other studies, for example, and thus the precise hierarchy of non-whites might be expected to change with gendered data.

Quotes:

  • A hierarchy of preferences emerges among both Europeans and minority groups. Europeans are the most preferred group and generally less willing to be matched with those from other races. In fact, unlike initially predicted, online daters of all racial backgrounds are more open to dating Europeans than their own group.
  • Hispanics and Asians hold intermediate rankings, and finally, Arabs and Africans are the least preferred.

Reference:

Across America, women most desire white men, followed by black, Hispanic, and Asian men[edit | edit source]


Bruch & Newman (2018) analyzed data from a free popular online dating site in four large American cities (New York, Boston, Chicago, and Seattle) to assess which factors people base their decisions on in online dating. They found women ranked men in a racial hierarchy of desirability as follows:

  • White > black > Hispanic > Asian

This data was similar to the data reviewed previously in the Yahoo Personals study, only with a reversed position in the hierarchy for Hispanic and black men.

Counteracting the common notion that whites are most desired in dating due to "Westernized" standards of beauty, men found Asian women most attractive in this same study, more so even than white women. Although both Asian men and women would be equally subject to "Western" beauty standards, Asians were still viewed at opposite ends of attractiveness by gender, with Asian men the least desired by women and Asian women the most desired by men.

Figures:

Desirability of men online to women by male race

Quotes:

  • In keeping with previous work, there is also a clear and consistent dependence on ethnicity, with Asian women and white men being the most desirable potential mates by our measures across all four cities.

References:

Looks (Life)[edit | edit source]

Beauty is objective and measurable in the brain[edit | edit source]


It has long been debated whether there is there an objective, biological basis for the experience of beauty or if it is subjective and individually or culturally driven. To determine this, researchers showed average people images of masterpieces of Classical and Renaissance sculpture, and modified versions of these arts with less mathematically ideal proportions.

They then used fMRI to measure activation of the subjects' brains when they were exposed to either the beautiful ideal art or the less beautiful modified art. Researchers observed clear differential patterns of brain activation. It was shown that average people could easily come to consensus on which version was "beautiful" or not, and when beauty was encountered, it activated predictable pathways in the brain to process it.

Primarily, the insula appeared responsible for judging whether something was beautiful or not, and if something was beautiful, the amygdala would then be activated to provide an emotional response. Researchers state this suggests that both our capacity to detect beauty and enjoy the pleasurable sensations it elicits are strongly hardwired into our brain structure.

Quotes:

  • The observation of original sculptures, relative to the modified ones, produced activation of the right insula as well as of some lateral and medial cortical areas (lateral occipital gyrus, precuneus and prefrontal areas). When volunteers were required to give an overt aesthetic judgment, the images judged as beautiful selectively activated the right amygdala, relative to those judged as ugly.
  • We conclude that the sense of beauty is mediated by two non-mutually exclusive processes: one based on a joint activation of sets of cortical neurons, triggered by parameters intrinsic to the stimuli, and the insula (objective beauty); the other based on the activation of the amygdala, driven by one's own emotional experiences (subjective beauty).
  • The main question we addressed in the present study was whether there is an objective beauty. Our results gave a positive answer to this question. The presence of a specific parameter (the golden ratio) in the stimuli we presented determined brain activations different to those where this parameter was violated.
  • Although individual biases are undeniable, it is also rather implausible to maintain that beauty has no biological substrate and is merely a conventional, experientially determined concept.

References:

People broadly agree on who is good looking or not, and it affects every aspect of life[edit | edit source]


In this review article, researchers establish with 11 meta-analyses that contrary to what the bluepill might claim:

  • Raters agree about who is and is not attractive, both within and across cultures.
  • There seem to be universal standards by which facial attractiveness is judged.
  • Attractiveness is as important for males as for females in judging people we know.
  • Attractiveness is as important, if not more so, for children than for adults.
  • Attractive children and adults are judged more positively than unattractive children and adults, even by those who know them.
  • Attractive children and adults are treated more positively than unattractive children and adults, even by those who know them.
  • Attractive children and adults exhibit more positive behaviors and traits than unattractive children and adults.
  • Attractive people may exhibit more positive behaviors because attractive and unattractive people are treated differently, so they learn to behave differently.

According to this data, the positive or negative impacts of one's attractiveness can be universally appreciated and resonate through an entire lifetime.

Data:

Weighted effect sizes for positive behaviors and life outcomes, comparing 'unattractive' to 'attractive' children and adults:

Behavioral Differences n d+
Children (33 studies) 7,324 .40
Adjustment (15 studies) 3,876 .32
Intelligence & performance (10 studies) 3,043 .39
Popularity (15 studies) 1,002 .77
Adults (79 studies) 13,920 .40
Dating experience (9 studies) 1,631 .55
Sexual experience (6 studies) 1,678 .31
Extraversion (9 studies) 527 .26
Intelligence (18 studies) 3,853 .07
Occupational success (4 studies) 3,188 .76
Mental health (19 studies) 3,331 .16
Physical health(5 studies) 705 .38
Popularity (15 studies) 2,983 .65
Self-esteem (16 studies) 1,747 .24
Social skills (18 studies) 1,432 .20
Traditional attitudes (4 studies) 494 .27

Quotes:

  • Common maxims about beauty suggest that attractiveness is not important in life.
  • In contrast, both fitness-related evolutionary theory and socialization theory suggest that attractiveness influences development and interaction.
  • For cross-ethnic agreement the average reliability was r=.88, cross cultural agreement was even higher, r=.94 ... these results indicate that beauty is not simply in the eye of the beholder.
  • In 11 meta-analyses, the authors evaluate these contradictory claims, demonstrating that (a) raters agree about who is and is not attractive, both within and across cultures; (b) attractive children and adults are judged more positively than unattractive children and adults, even by those who know them; (c) attractive children and adults are treated more positively than unattractive children and adults, even by those who know them; and (d) attractive children and adults exhibit more positive behaviors and traits than unattractive children and adults.
  • These findings are powerful evidence that, contrary to popular belief, attractiveness effects extend beyond the mere "opinions" about others and permeate actual actions towards others, even though people may not be aware of it.
  • Results are used to evaluate social and fitness-related evolutionary theories and the veracity of maxims about beauty.

References:

It takes less than one second for people to accurately judge beauty[edit | edit source]


Beauty can be identified and processed in under 1 second. In a world where beauty is paramount for dating, sex, and relationship sex, thus it likely takes less than 1 second of someone looking at you to determine if you are "good enough". Perhaps this is why Tinder has been so successful. It provides the most efficient way to only allocate 1 second to each decision before moving on. Given that women find 80% of men "below average" in attractiveness as described elsewhere on this page, this unfortunately means most men will only be given 1 second consideration before getting swiped away into oblivion.

Quotes:

  • Increasing stimulus duration from 50 to 500 milliseconds increases aesthetic appeal, at least when the stimuli are abstract rather than natural, like faces.
  • Pleasure and beauty are reported to be independent of stimulus duration over the range 1 to 30 seconds.
  • Studies consistently find differences between an early processing stage up to 300 milliseconds from stimulus onset and a late stage after 500 milliseconds or more.
  • The early stage is mainly related to experiencing the stimulus and thus reflects the processing of the aesthetic stimulus itself, as discussed in the previous section.
  • The late stage is mainly related to making an aesthetic evaluation of the stimulus, that is, the cognitive decision about how to judge or rate the stimulus.

References:

Babies can easily differentiate between attractive and unattractive faces[edit | edit source]


Newborn babies can easily differentiate between attractive and unattractive faces, suggesting that face recognition is hardwired at birth, rather than learned.

To demonstrate this, researchers took pictures of a variety of faces and asked adult subjects to rate them for attractiveness on a scale from 1 to 5. The researchers then searched for pairs of photographs that were similar in all respects – in brightness and contrast, for example – but at opposite ends of the attractiveness scale.

They then presented these paired photographs to newborn infants, who ranged in age from one to seven days old. All babies were still in hospital after birth. One researcher held each infant upright about 30 centimetres away from the two photos. Another stood out of view and noted where the babies eyes were directed.

On average, the babies spent 80% of their time looking at the more attractive face than the less attractive one.

Quotes:

  • Attractiveness is not in the eye of the beholder, it’s innate to a newborn infant.

References:

Parents treat attractive children better than ugly children[edit | edit source]


Parental treatment of their children was evaluated by monitoring their parenting styles in supermarkets. Particularly, researchers observed whether or not parents used the available seat belts on shopping carts or paid attention to if the child was behaving in a way that could be dangerous. They found that the attractiveness of the child directly determined how often the parent used seatbelts and paid attention to the child's safety.

This demonstrates that attractiveness determines a great degree of our early life experience, even in terms of how affectionate or protective our parents are, from the earliest years. Thus the psychological differences between adults who are attractive vs. those that are unattractive can be seen as an interaction of nature and nurture. Children who are attractive by nature get nurtured more, and thus develop into more confident, successful, and happy people later in life. Their looks provide a constant positive feedback cycle where people care more about contributing to their well-being over time.

Quotes:

  • Researchers at the University of Alberta carefully observed how parents treated their children during trips to the supermarket. They found that physical attractiveness made a big difference.
  • The researchers noted if the parents belted their youngsters into the grocery cart seat, how often the parents' attention lapsed and the number of times the children were allowed to engage in potentially dangerous activities like standing up in the shopping cart.
  • Pretty and ugly children were treated in starkly different ways, with seat belt use increasing in direct proportion to attractiveness.
  • When a woman was in charge, 4 percent of the homeliest children were strapped in compared with 13.3 percent of the most attractive children.
  • The difference was even more acute when fathers led the shopping expedition -- in those cases, none of the least attractive children were secured with seat belts, while 12.5 percent of the prettiest children were.
  • Like lots of animals, we tend to parcel out our resources on the basis of value, he said. Maybe we can't always articulate that, but in fact we do it. There are a lot of things that make a person more valuable, and physical attractiveness may be one of them.

References:

Good looking people are more often presumed innocent and given lighter sentences/bail[edit | edit source]


https://ideas.ted.com/what-makes-a-person-creepy-and-what-purpose-do-our-creep-detectors-serve-a-psychologist-explains/

Lighter Sentences

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12147-015-9142-5

Meta-analysis: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1994.tb01552.x

Observational study: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1980.tb00715.x

Lighter Bail

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0146167291175009

Physical attractiveness in adolescence predicts better socioeconomic status in adulthood[edit | edit source]


Benzeval, Green & Macintyre (2013) conducted a study of the effect of physical attractiveness in adolescents of both sexes (mean age 15.7 years old) on adult life outcomes.

The researchers used data from the youth cohort of the Twenty-07 Study (N=1,515) of people born in the the early 1970s.

The physical attractiveness of the studies participants was evaluated by three separate interviewers on a scale of 1 (very unattractive) to 7 (very attractive), with the mean of the various interviewer's ratings being used for the analyses. The participants level of self-esteem was also recorded using Rosenberg's self-esteem inventory.

Later follow up interviews were conducted at a mean age of 36, and the researchers recorded the participants level of educational attainment, social class (dichotomized into manual and non manual professions,) and employment status. The employment status and the current or most recent occupation of their romantic partners were also recorded.

The participants IQ score was measured using the Alice Heim 4 test of general intelligence (AH4), which measured verbal and numerical reasoning within a time limit of 10 minutes, however there was no measure of IQ when the participants were 15. The researchers noted that the AH4 measure of IQ would have been influenced by subsequent environmental factors, but it was still considered adequate for the purposes of the study (measuring the effects of physical attractiveness independent of potential confounds such as education, SES, and IQ.)

It was found that attractive adolescents occupied higher status jobs as adults, and were more likely to be married. However, attractiveness and self-esteem were not found to be correlated. The strongest effect found was on individuals from a more disadvantaged social background, with physical attractiveness having a significant effect on their chances of attaining a 'white-collar' job at age 36, and this effect was strongest among female participants, with attractive women being very unlikely to be working low-status jobs.

Quotes:

  • The more attractive a child was rated at age 15, the higher their socioeconomic position at age 36.
  • In the world of paid work, employers interviewing candidates for a position or discussing wages may look more favourably on attractive candidates, either because they perceive them to have more positive attributes or because they believe customers may do so.
  • However, we did not find an association at age 15 between self esteem and attractiveness, which suggests that these characteristics may not be a key mechanism or that our measure of self esteem in adolescence was inadequate and/or that a self esteem advantage has not developed at age 15.

References:

Physically attractive individuals are more likely to believe in a 'just world'[edit | edit source]


The Just World Fallacy is the cognitive bias (or assumption) that a person's actions will bring morally fair and fitting consequences to that person, such that all noble actions will be eventually rewarded and all evil actions eventually punished. A person viewing the dating world through the lens of the Just World Fallacy would thus assume that those who succeed in dating are being deservedly rewarded, and those who fail are equally deserving of their failure.

Researchers have found that societal privilege is the strongest predictor of belief in the Just World Fallacy, and specifically within that, that physical attractiveness particularly predicts one's beliefs that the world is just.

The more physically attractive a person is, the more likely they are to believe the world is just. The less physically attractive a person is, the less likely they are to believe the world is just. It is concluded that a person's physical appearance powerfully shapes how they experience and view the world.

Quotes:

  • Previous work has consistently found that belief in a just world is strongly correlated with societal privilege.
  • Both self-rated attractiveness (experiment one) and attractiveness rated by other persons (experiment two) were found to predict endorsement of belief in a just world.
  • Additionally, both attractiveness measures were found to have a relationship with participant’s level of life satisfaction.
  • These findings suggest that physical attractiveness powerfully affects our subjective experience as a human and that just-world beliefs are driven, at least in part, by personal experience with inequality.

Reference:

Attractive men are perceived as 'funnier', even when they are actually not[edit | edit source]


Cowan & Little (2012) conducted a study to assess the degree to which humor influenced sexual selection (particularly in men) as powerfully as it is often touted to in the mainstream discourse surrounding relationships.

The study consisted of 40 undergraduate college students (20 men, and 20 women) who were photographed, then participated in a video clip where they were asked which of three items (chocolate, hairspray or plastic bag) they would bring with them to a deserted island, and what they would do with said items, with the subjects not being prompted to be humorous in their answer. The videos were carefully edited so they were all 20 seconds long.

A separate group of participants were places in a quiet room alone with a desktop computer, where they were played the aforementioned clips in random order, with the audio recording of the clips being played first, then they were shown the photographs of the previous participants and finally they viewed the video clips. The participants were then prompted the rate the stimuli on a 7 point scale for how amusing they found it, and then rate how attractive they viewed the actors in the videos for short-term and long-term relationships, respectively.

Although unattractive participants scored slightly higher in funniness in the audio only condition, they were viewed as less funny in the video and photograph conditions, with this effect being especially apparent in the photograph condition as compared to the audio only condition. The opposite was true for attractive men - thus demonstrating perceptions of humor are significantly influenced by the attractiveness halo effect. Good looking people were not any funnier when their looks were removed from the equation. But when their good looks were evident, they were perceived as funnier.

For a more humorous take on this subject, comedian Gilbert Gottfried wrote an article summarizing his experiences which mirror the findings of this study entitled, "Women Say They Want a Guy With a Sense of Humor. They Don't."

Quotes:

  • Individuals who were higher in attractiveness were rated as being funnier in conditions with visual elements whilst individuals of lower attractiveness were rated as less funny than they were rated in the audio condition.
  • If raters do not want attention from less attractive people, they may also be less likely to describe less attractive actors as funny in the video condition, as laughter could be seen as a way to reciprocate interest, which raters in this study may have wanted to avoid.
  • Alternatively, it could be speculated that raters are more attentive to videos of more attractive actors which leads to higher rating of funniness.

References:

Looks (Love)[edit | edit source]

Women feel sexual disgust when they imagine even talking to an unattractive man[edit | edit source]


Researchers attempted to study how women rate men and react to imagined sex with men while in an aroused and unaroused state. To do so, they showed 91 women either an erotic video or a hiking video before rating the attractiveness of photographs of men’s faces. The faces varied in attractiveness. The women then rated their disgust towards anticipated behaviors with men depicted on photographs.

They found that the most dramatic influence on women's disgust was how attractive the man they showed them was. All differences in disgust were significant when comparing the attractive man to the unattractive man, even when the anticipated behavior was just talking to the man. Sexually arousing women with pornography beforehand did not reduce their disgust at unattractive men.

Even the professional male model used to represent an 'attractive' man still aroused considerable disgust in women when they imagined sex with him. Researchers note that women experience a higher degree of sexual disgust towards men at baseline compared to how men feel about woman. Thus a man must truly be very attractive to a woman to override her innate sense of disgust. Since men have less sexual disgust at baseline, men may on the other hand be more flexible to consider women of more broadly varying attractiveness.

Perhaps most harshly, the image used to represent an 'unattractive' man appears to just be a fairly average white man. One can only imagine how much higher women's disgust would have been had they used a truly ugly man for the analysis.

Figures:

Disgust ratings that women felt when they imagined talking to, hugging, kissing, or having sex with the pictured men

Quotes:

  • Disgust is an avoidance reaction that serves the function of discouraging costly mating decisions.
  • In an online experiment, women rated their disgust towards anticipated behaviors with men depicted on photographs.
  • Participants did so in a sexually aroused state and in a control state.
  • The faces varied in attractiveness and the presence of disease cues (blemishes).
  • We found that disease cues and attractiveness, but not sexual arousal, influenced disgust.
  • The results suggest that women feel disgust at sexual contact with unattractive men.
  • Attractiveness seems to reduce disgust and therefore also avoidance tendencies—probably because it signals good health and small risk of pathogen transmission.
  • Women on average have a higher disgust sensitivity and propensity than men. This also implies that they require relatively more sexual arousal to outweigh disgust and elicit a sexually functioning feedback loop. In other words, sexual arousal is less likely to outweigh disgust in women.

References:

  • Zsok, F., Fleischman, D.S., Borg, C., Morrison, E. 2017. Disgust Trumps Lust: Women’s Disgust and Attraction Towards Men Is Unaffected by Sexual Arousal. Evolutionary Psychological Science. 3:353. [Abstract] [FullText]

70% of women would openly avoid a man solely because of his looks[edit | edit source]


The skincare brand Remescar conducted a survey of 2,000 British men and women on their preferences for a romantic or sexual partner.

When women were asked what they desired in a romantic partner, their top rated value was “a nice smile”, and third from top was “body type”. 70% of female respondents admitted that they would ignore or avoid an individual of the opposite sex solely because of the way they looked, versus 31% of men.

Quotes:

  • Women are more shallow than men when it comes to judging people on looks.
  • According to the poll, just 31 per cent of male respondents admitted that they would ignore or avoid someone of the opposite sex based upon their looks, compared to a massive 70 per cent of female respondents admitted that they would ignore or avoid the opposite sex because of the way they looked.

References:

Love at first sight can be predicted by physical attractiveness[edit | edit source]


Researchers attempted to evaluate what contributes to the love-at-first-sight phenomenon using an online study, a laboratory study, and three dating events. They found that the primary predictor was physical attractiveness.

Strangers were more likely to report experiencing love-at-first-sight with physically attractive others. In fact, one rating point higher in attractiveness on the scale that the researchers used corresponded with a nine times greater likelihood that others would report that "electric" love-at-first-sight feeling.

Quotes:

  • Physical attraction was highly predictive of reporting love-at-first-sight (LAFS).
  • We therefore suggest that LAFS is not a distinct form of love, but rather a strong initial attraction that some label as LAFS, either in the moment of first sight or retrospectively.

References:

  • Zsok, F., Haucke, M., De Wit, C. Y., & Barelds, D. P. (2017). What kind of love is love at first sight? An empirical investigation. Personal Relationships, 24, 869-885. [Abstract] [FullText] [Summary]

Looks are most important to women in speed dating[edit | edit source]


Luo & Zhang (2009) conducted a speed-dating experiment which consisted of (n=108) participants divided into two equal opposite sex groups. Before the speed-dating event, the participants completed a battery of psychometric tests and surveys designed to measure the big-five personality traits, attachment style, self-esteem, affectivity, interests and political and personal values. Six speed dating events were conducted, each 60 minutes in length.

Each date was 5 minutes long, with participants completing a questionnaire recording their evaluation of the date and their partners. The participants were informed that they were allowed to inquire about their date's contact information for further interaction outside the experiment, at their own risk.

After the dates were completed the participants were asked to complete a one-page post event questionnaire about their feelings and perceptions for each partner (i.e their desire for further contact, comfort and attraction towards their dates) and a one-page questionnaire of self-ratings. The participants' physical attractiveness was evaluated by a team of eight researchers (interrater agreement=.86)

Ultimately, it was found that the only significant predictors of women's attraction to their dates, were their dates physical attractiveness, and their interest in sporting activities. Whereas men's attraction, while also extremely related to the physical attractiveness of their partner (r=.88), was also significantly related to a number of personality traits, their partners age (with men preferring women up to the limit of 26 yrs old used in the study) and their partners political beliefs (men preferring conservative women).

There was also some evidence for the reciprocity principle (i.e that people like others more when their liking is reciprocated) but only after the participants had been informed of their partner's favorable responses towards them. There was no evidence that similarity in terms of convergent political beliefs, values, and personality traits measured mattered when it came to predicting attraction, at least in terms of the short-term dating paradigm used in this study.

Quotes:

  • The strongest predictor of attraction was partner’s physical attractiveness, and this was well replicated across sex.
  • Our results indicate that people like their partners better if they know their partners also like them. However, there was no evidence for the idea that similarity boosts attraction.
  • It therefore seems a very solid finding that men and women are equally strongly drawn to physically attractive partners.
  • This finding, however, appears to be inconsistent with the widely accepted finding in evolutionary research indicating a fundamental sex difference in their preferences for long-term partners ... evolutionary research does suggest that these sex differences in mating preferences tend to diminish or even disappear when short-term mating contexts are primed.
  • In our particular case, it seems that women’s attraction feeling is dominated by partners’ physical attractiveness, just as their male counterparts, even though it is possible that when prompted to think about preferences for a potential mate, women would give priority considerations to characteristics like earning potential.

References:

Looks are most important to women in video dating[edit | edit source]


Olderbak et al. conducted a video dating study consisting of sample of n=102 participants (56% women, mean age 18.85 years) all university undergraduates. The participants completed several self-report questionnaires, including the mate value inventory (measure of traits that are desired in a romantic partner), questionnaires designed to measure life history strategy, the Big Five personality traits, and a measurement of physical attractiveness.

Targets were instructed to either complete a questionnaire about themselves or respond with a 10 minute video clip to questions directed at themselves. Then, a second group of (N=335) participants completed the aforementioned battery on questionnaires, and were instructed to watch the 10 minute videos of the targets. If there existed a prior acquaintance with any of the targets, their data was excluded from the study. The participants were instructed to complete a questionnaire, detailing their perceptions of the targets personality traits, and their desire for a romantic relationship with the targets.

It was found, that the halo effects for females evaluating male targets were much more pronounced then vice versa. The males in the study didn't reach a consensus in regards to the female targets Big Five personality traits, and their life history strategy, but they did reach a consensus in regards the female targets physical attractiveness. The female subjects on the other hand, were able to come to an agreement regarding life history strategy and physical attractiveness of the male subjects.

Ultimately, it was found that physical attractiveness was the only significant predictor of romantic interest in both sexes.

Quotes:

  • Our results suggest that the responders' perception of the targets' physical attractiveness, specifically that he or she was higher than the responder on physical attractiveness, was, amongst the traits studied here, the only significant predictor of romantic interest.
  • We found that when women rated the traits of men, they more often came to an agreement than when men rated women. However, there were considerable halo effects on the trait perception by women.
  • Overall, women came to an agreement on the male targets?mate value, mate value-reduced, physical attractiveness, slow life history strategy and extraversion, and men came to an agreement on the female targets?physical attractiveness, conscientiousness and extraversion.

References:

Looks are most important to women in blind dating[edit | edit source]


Walster et al. (1966) conducted a field experiment consisting of a "computer dance"; i.e blind dates organized by an old IBM punch-card computer, to test their hypothesis of assortative mating (that people tend to date others in their own 'league' of attractiveness, wealth, status, personality etc.) Four raters (college sophomores) rated the subjects (n=752) on a 8 point scale for physical attractiveness ranging from "very unattractive" to "very attractive".

The subjects then answered a questionnaire, of which the purpose was to measure the level of four traits of the subjects: self rated popularity, how nervous they were of the date, their expectations of the date (how attractive and personable he/she expected the date to be) and their level of self-esteem measured by Berger's self-esteem scale. Also collected were the students SAT scores, and their high school grades percentile rankings.

The subjects were then assigned to a date by the IBM computer, with the condition that a man never be assigned to a woman taller then himself. The IBM punch card next in the deck was assigned to the subject in the case of that event.

After the blind date, the subjects were asked to rate their liking of the date, whether they would like to date the partner again, and their opinion of the date's personality, mutual compatibility between the subject and the date and liking of date for the subject. The conclusions of the study were:

  • By far, the largest determinant of the subjects liking of their dates was their dates physical attractiveness. The correlation between liking of the date and their partner's physical attractiveness was: for men rating women r=.79 and it was r=.69 for women rating men.
  • Men's level of academic achievement was actually somewhat negatively correlated with his dates desire for him (r=.-18)
  • All the personality metrics measured (self-esteem, introversion vs extroversion and masculinity vs femininity) had no significant correlation with the subjects ratings of their dates.

Quotes:

  • It is apparent that by far the greatest determinant of how much liking an individual feels for his/her partner is simply how attractive the partner is
  • We should note that, even though further contact may have reduced the importance of physical attractiveness, whether or not the subjects attempted to continue to date his (or her) partner depended on his (or her) partner's physical attractiveness.

References:

  • Walster, E., Aronson, V., Abrahams, D., & Rottman, L. (1966). Importance of physical attractiveness in dating behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4(5), 508-516. [Abstract]

It is Looks > Personality > Money for both genders, but women lie more about it[edit | edit source]


Researchers from Northwestern University attempted to answer the question: Do People Know What They Desire in a Romantic Partner?

The approached their research by first having candidates fill out questionnaires on what they felt was most important in a relationship. They then ran a 2 hour speed dating event where individuals had to choose afterwards who they wanted to see again. They were given the opportunity to start messaging any matches. They subsequently filled out a post dating questionnaire evaluating their opinions of their various matches.

Researchers then used follow up studies to assess who actually initiated a relationship and the correlations for physical attractiveness, wealth, and personality in predicting those relationships.

They found that men and women both underestimated the importance of physical attractiveness, but women far more so. Ratings were:

  • Men's Pre-Conceptions: Personality (8.1) > Looks (8.04) > Money (6.91)
  • Women's Pre-Conceptions: Personality (8.1) > Money (7.73) > Looks (7.18)
  • Both Genders' Actual Factors: Looks > Personality > Money

Thus while women rated physical attractiveness for a man as their lowest priority, it turned out to be their strongest priority and even more important than it was for men. Studies like this suggest why it may not be useful to ask women what is most important to them, as in scientific studies, they have not been able to give reliable or factual answers on this subject. As in most cases, nature is best learnt through objective observation i.e revealed preferences vs stated preferences.

Data:

Men and women's pre-dating assessments of important of looks, money, and personality out of 10:

Men Women
Looks 8.04 7.18
Personality 8.1 8.1
Money 6.91 7.73

How much looks, personality, and money actually correlated with relationship success for each gender, showing it is Looks > Personality > Money for both genders:

Men Women
Looks 0.43 0.46
Personality 0.29 0.32
Money 0.19 0.16

Quotes:

  • Although physical attractiveness, good earning prospects, and personable characteristics were all positively and significantly associated with romantic interest, the data revealed no evidence of sex differences in these associations.

References:

Your looks define perception of your personality in online dating[edit | edit source]


When dating site OK Cupid first began, they allowed users to rate prospective partners independently on both personality and looks. Over time, they saw the futility of this approach, as it became apparent that users did not distinguish between personality and looks. In their blog, they cite an example of a "hot" model with no profile filled out, that still scored top points for both looks and personality (even though no one could possibly know anything about the model's personality from an empty profile).

In the end OK Cupid disabled the feature, and now only allows one global rating to be given. They published their data from when looks and personality were rated individually so others can see how online dating users consider these two factors essentially the same thing.

Figures:

OK Cupid's data showing personality ratings vs. looks ratings of profiles which demonstrate almost perfect 1:1 correlation

Quotes:

  • According to our users, “looks” and “personality” were the same thing.

References:

A man's personality only matters to a woman if he meets her basic looks cutoff first[edit | edit source]


Fugère et al. (2017) conducted a study examining the mate preferences of (n=80) women and their mothers.

The women and their mothers were presented with three color photographs of three different Caucasian males varying in physical attractiveness, together with one of three trait profiles which varied on traits commonly reported by women in previous research as desirable in a male partner (i.e: kind, funny, caring, industrious, dependable, mature etc.).

Each man's photograph (unattractive, moderately attractive, attractive) were paired with the varying trait profiles mentioned above, with the profiles being manipulated to vary in desirability.

The women rated the photos and profiles on desirability based on three questions: "how attractive do you find this person," "how favorably do you rate his personal description," and "how desirable would you find this person as a dating partner for yourself", on a 1-7 scale of desirability with the mothers rating the photographs and profiles on their level of desirability as a potential partner for their daughters.

It was found that physical attractiveness was more strongly correlated to the women's ratings of desirability for the men then their personality profiles (with the mothers being less selective on looks then their daughters, except when it came to unattractive men,) and that a certain level of attractiveness was thus seen as a 'necessity' for both the young women and their mothers.

Quotes:

  • Regardless of the trait profiles associated with the target photographs, the attractive and moderately attractive men were rated as having more favorable personalities than the unattractive man.
  • These finding suggest that when offspring or their parents rate physical attractiveness as less important than other traits, respondents assume that potential mates will possess a minimally acceptable level of physical attractiveness.
  • Because of the positive association between attractiveness and pleasing personalities, it may be that we not only expect attractive others to have more favorable personality characteristics but that we also expect those with more favorable characteristics to possess at least a minimally acceptable level of physical attractiveness.
  • Although personality ratings impacted mothers’ perceptions of the target men more so than daughters’, personality ratings were strongly influenced by men’s physical attractiveness.

References:

Being unattractive reduces men's chances of finding partners, but not women's[edit | edit source]


Researchers analyzed the results of 11,056 interviews in Spain to assess which factors most predicted a person's ability to find a partner for marriage.

Their study found in numerous parameters and analyses that male attractiveness had a massive effect on a man's ability to find a partner, to find a partner with a university degree, or to find a partner with a higher educational level.

However, in all areas of study, no major effects were seen for women based on their attractiveness. Female physical attractiveness generally played little or no role, however being unattractive presented a slight penalty to the likelihood of forming a couple among women of working-class origin, with the researchers noting this effect was much weaker among women of this social class then the one found among corresponding males of this class.

When speaking of the challenges that being an unattractive man poses in dating, many women are unsympathetic and cannot understand how being unattractive as a man could be so detrimental to success. Research suggests this may be because women do not suffer the same disadvantages from being unattractive, and thus have no personal reference for understanding the struggles of unattractive men. This is a cognitive bias known as the hot-cold empathy gap.

Quotes:

  • For men, the results show that being unattractive decreases the likelihood of finding a partner, of finding a partner with a university degree, and of finding a partner with a higher educational level.
  • Being unattractive reduced the probability of mating for males by between 15 and 17 points, depending on the models used, when compared to the more attractive group, and 10 points compared to those with an average attractiveness level.
  • Being unattractive decreased the probability of social advancement through mating in males. The difference between them and those that were very attractive was 29 percentage points. The difference for those with average attractiveness levels was 20 percentage points.
  • For women, physical attractiveness does not affect the likelihood of any of those events occurring.
  • Among women, physical attractiveness did not matter when it came to mating. The results for women indicate that attractiveness did not matter.
  • The opposite happens with males: their physical attractiveness matters.
  • Being unattractive penalised the likelihood of forming a couple among women of working-class origin, which was not the case for daughter of high-ranking professionals. Even in this case, the less attractive women had a greater likelihood of forming a couple.

References:

'Very unattractive' women are more likely to be married than other women[edit | edit source]


Kanazawa, Hu & Larere (2018) conducted an analysis of the The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data consisting of a "sample of 20,745 adolescents" who were personally interviewed in their homes in four 'waves' ranging from 1994-2008. Only the data of those who participated in all waves and didn't drop out of the study was used for the authors analysis.

The authors analysed the data to find how attractive the participants (that were married or cohabitating) had been at the time of the beginning of their marriage or cohabitation, and used income as a proxy for their intelligence (IQ and income being robustly proven by previous research to be correlated).

The authors concluded that 'very unattractive' women were more likely to be married or cohabitating then merely unattractive or even average to good looking women, and their spouses tended to earn more then their better-looking female counterparts. They infer that intelligent men have a preference to marry or mate with very unattractive women.

Quotes:

  • The analyses of the (data) showed that very unattractive women were significantly more likely to be married ...than unattractive women at 29, sometimes more than average-looking women, and their spouses or cohabitation partners earned significantly more than those of unattractive or average-looking women.
  • Because both intelligence and physical attractiveness are highly heritable, we would expect their offspring to be simultaneously intelligent and very unattractive.
  • Intelligent men’s preference to marry or mate with very unattractive women, if robust, can potentially explain why the correlation between intelligence and physical attractiveness is not larger despite the assortative mating of intelligent men of higher status and physically attractive women over many generations.

References:

Women are less likely to use a condom with a more attractive male partner[edit | edit source]


A study by Eleftheriou et al. (2019) consisting of an online questionnaire answered by "480 English-speaking women who have sex with men" who rated the facial attractiveness of 20 men and detailed their willingness to have intercourse with the men without a condom. They found:

  • The more attractive a man was judged to be, the more likely it was that participants were willing to have sex with him (r = 0.987 p value <0.001)
  • Further, the more attractive a man was judged to be, the less likely women were to intend to use a condom during sex (r = -0.552 p value = 0.007)
  • The average perceived STD likelihood for a man had no significant association with his average perceived attractiveness or with participants’ average willingness to have sex with him
  • The more attractive a participant judged herself to be, the more she believed that, overall, men are likely to have a STD.
  • Women showed significantly higher condom use intentions with: men who they rated as less attractive (p<0.0005), men who they rated as less likely to carry or transmit an STI (p<0.0005), men with whom they were less interested in having sex (p<0.0005) and when they estimated that fewer of their peers would also have condomless sex with him (p<0.0005).

In other words, whether a man is attractive is the most important predictor of whether women will use a condom during intercourse with him. Furthermore, women are actually less likely to use a condom with a man they judge as being high risk for carrying or transmitting an STD to them.

Quotes:

  • Participants were more willing to have sex with more attractive men, but were less inclined to use condoms when they do so.
  • Women showed significantly higher condom use intentions with: men who they rated as less attractive.
  • Moreover, in the current study, we found that participants reported lower condom use intentions towards men with whom they were willing to have sex. This result was surprising when we considered that these same women also judged that a greater number of women like themselves would also be willing to have condomless sex with these men.
  • This finding may be more easily explained, when we consider the work of Fishbein et al. and Williams et al., who found that risk information about a partner is sometimes ignored when the partner is attractive.

References:

A man's masculinity and physical attractiveness predicts a woman's chance of orgasm[edit | edit source]


Puts et al. (2011) conducted a study of a sample of university students (men n=110, women n=110) who were in a committed sexual relationship. The participants were photographed and then led into a private booth where they completed a questionnaire where the men rated "rated their own attractiveness, dominance and masculinity and their partner's femininity" and the women rated their own attractiveness and their partner's dominance and masculinity. Women also reported their rate of orgasm during sexual intercourse and partner-aided and self induced orgasms during masturbation.

Using software the researchers conducted a model that objectively measured facial sexual dimorphism and compared it to the photographs of the male participants. They discovered:

  • Objective measures of the 'quality' of women's mates, significantly predicted the women's orgasms.
  • Women were quicker to orgasm with more masculine men (β =.36) when it concerned women reaching orgasm before their partners)
  • Women were much more likely to orgasm (β =.50) during or after the man if he was more attractive and reported himself as dominant (β =.24)
  • Masculinity and attractiveness predicted women's probability of orgasm during intercourse, but not during not intercourse activities (i.e oral sex, mutual masturbation), the authors suggested that this finding demonstrated that the female orgasm possibly serves an evolutionary adaptive function, i.e that women's orgasms increase the retention of the semen of the most genetically desirable mates.

Quotes:

  • We found that objective measures of the quality of women's mates—men's attractiveness and masculinity—significantly predicted the women's orgasms.
  • Although our results require replication, they are consistent with the hypothesis that female orgasm is a copulatory mate choice mechanism, perhaps for selecting high-quality genes for offspring.
  • This suggests that male sire quality increases female orgasm specifically during sexual behaviors that could result in conception, thus supporting the sire choice hypothesis.
  • Interestingly, this component of female orgasm (achieving orgasm after or during the male partners orgasm) was negatively predicted by male self-rated dominance and masculinity. Because more objective measures of male dominance, masculinity and attractiveness either weakly or negatively loaded onto the self-rated dominance/masculinity component, we suspect that self-rated dominance/masculinity measured something other than genetic quality.

References:

A man's physical attractiveness to other women predicts his partner's chance of orgasm[edit | edit source]


Sela et al. (2015) conducted a self-reported survey of women (n=439) in "committed, heterosexual relationship" to investigate the relationship between their chance of orgasm during their last copulation with their partner and their assessments of their own and other women's attraction to their male partners. They found:

  • Women who perceived their partners as more physically attractive were more likely to orgasm during their last copulation with them. The researchers (controlling for possible confounding factors) found there was a direct relationship between male attractiveness and women's frequency of orgasm.
  • Additionally, women's chance to orgasm was also mediated by their perceptions of other women's attraction to their mates.

This suggests that women are sexually aroused by a male partner they perceive as being highly attractive to other women, which provides more support for the hypothesis that mate-choice copying applies to human females.

Quotes:

  • The results are consistent with Hypotheses 1 and 2, and indicate that perception of other women’s assessments of their partner’s attractiveness predicts female copulatory orgasm, even after controlling for age and relationship duration and satisfaction (although relationship satisfaction also predicts female copulatory orgasm.)
  • Women may attend to which men other women find attractive and, as a consequence, find these men attractive, have sex with them, and have orgasms with them – all to reduce the costs of mate choice.
  • The results of the current research provide support for both the Pair-Bond Hypothesis and the Sire Choice Hypothesis, which are not mutually exclusive.

References:

A man's physical attractiveness predicts how long he waits before a woman will allow sex[edit | edit source]


Hunt, Eastwick & Finkel (2015) conducted a study which aim was to examine the effects of propinquity on human sexual attraction.

The participants in the study (n=334, 167 couples, 28 excluded from study) were recruited from a longitudinal study of romantic relationships. The participants were instructed to complete an online questionnaire, which was designed to evaluate the length of the relationship and the length of their acquaintance prior to the initiation of the relationship of the subjects.

The participants were then taken to a laboratory were they sat at a table and discussed their relationship while being filmed. The researchers made sure the face and torso of the couples were clearly visible in the videos.

Seven raters watched all of the videos and evaluated the physical attractiveness of the participants jointly. Then to control for possible halo effects influencing the results, the participants physical attractiveness was evaluated separately by a new team of raters. Interrater reliability was high for both evaluations, with the assortative mating correlation being higher when the subjects were evaluated separately (i.e the partners were less 'matched' in looks when evaluated apart.)

It was discovered that the longer the participants 'waited' before dating, the less their levels of physical attractiveness correlated with each other. Thus, although the authors of the study seemed to attempt to portray this fact in a positive light (e.g 'leveling the playing field',) the study demonstrated that women make less attractive males wait longer in the 'friend zone' before they will initiate a relationship with them, if they do at all.

Quotes:

  • Couples who formed their relationships soon after meeting were more likely to match based on physical attractiveness than those who formed their relationships well after meeting each other.

References:

Face[edit | edit source]

Male facial sexual dimorphism determines female interest for friendship vs. short/long-term dating[edit | edit source]


By morphing a man's photo from its most masculine form to its most androgynous, researchers were able to directly gauge how the masculinity affected women's sensations of "friendliness", being "enemy-like", and being "sexy".

Sexiness and enemy-like perceptions both increased as masculinity increased, which is in keeping with other research finding women find aggressive, dark triad, or violent traits most sexually arousing. However, at a certain point of extreme masculinity, there was a decrease in the sexiness and only a rise in the enemy-like perception.

On the other end of the spectrum, the less masculine a male face was, the more likely it was to be perceived as a "friend" and less sexy or enemy-like.

Thus one's propensity for being judged by women as a short term partner, long term partner, or "friendzone" partner may depend highly on one's facial masculinity. Both for short-term and long-term mating, women preferred men who were far more masculine than the average man.

This data may suggest that if a man finds himself continually in the "friendzone" with women, it may not be due to anything behavioral, and instead the best explanation might be found in the nearest mirror.

Data:

How male facial sexual dimorphism influences female assessment as friend, enemy, or sexual.

Quote:

  • Using a movie that morphs a very masculine male face (frame 1 of 700) into an androgynous face, the facial pictures and vertical lines indicate the mean location of participants’ dominant male (DOM), short-term mate (STM), long-term mate (LTM), average male (AVM) and androgynous face (AND) selections, with respect to experimentally assigned personality traits.
  • F1 (‘Friend’ factor) is composed of positive attributes such as sensitive, helpful and trustworthy.
  • F3 (‘Enemy’ factor) consists of undesirable attributes like sel?sh, controlling and threatening.
  • The ‘Lover’ factor (F2) includes sexually exciting, supportive and healthy.
  • The STM selection appears to be the best ‘good-genes’ choice (Lover factor), while avoiding the negative traits associated with high degrees of masculinity (Enemy factor).
  • The LTM selection appears to trade off some ‘good genes’ attributes in favor of those required for a good friend and good father (included in F1).

References:

Men with dominant, aggressive faces (high fWHR) are preferred for short term relationships[edit | edit source]


Facial Width-Height Ratio (fWHR) is a proportionate measure of a man's facial width to his height, measured laterally from the edges of the zygomatic processes and vertically from the mid-brow to the top of the upper lips. Two examples of how this measure works are posted under 'Figures' below.

Valentine et al. (2014) performed a study utilizing a speed dating format which consisted of young male and female subjects (n=159;78 young men and 81 young women) who weren't compensated in any way for their participation, and thus were participating in the study because they were "(looking for the) chance to find a real-life partner, suggesting the choices were primarily motivated by actual mating interests."

The males in the study were rated by independent raters on the following metrics:

  • Dominance (unisex raters)
  • How aggressive would this person be if provoked? (unisex raters)
  • Facial adiposity (unisex raters)
  • Attractiveness (female raters only)

Inter-rater reliability was high for all four dimensions (as measured by Cronbachs Alpha). Thus it was demonstrated that raters could come to a clear consensus on how dominant, aggressive, overweight, and attractive each man appeared.

Analysis of outcomes showed that men's fWHR explained fully 34% of the variance in women's interest in men for short-term relationships. fWHR was a very powerful predictor of being chosen for future dates by the women, even when higher fWHR faces were not deemed more attractive by women. High fWHR men were perceived as more dominant and thus more desirable to women for short-term sexual involvement.

Figures:

Example of high vs. low fWHR male faces

fWHR is measured from the width of the zygomatic arches and height between the vermillion border of the upper lip and midbrow point at the top.

Data:

The relation between the variables studied on women's interest in a long-term (LTR) or short-term (STR) relationship, and how likely they were to choose the men for a further date.

Predictor LTR STR Chance of Being Chosen
Age .32 .21 .26
Attractiveness .51 .44 .47
Adiposity -.12 -.25 -.23
fWHR .15 .31 .30

Quotes:

  • The direct and indirect effects of fWHR combined explain 34% of the variance in women’s interest in short-term relationships
  • Men with wide faces are not more physically attractive to women, but are preferred for short-term relationships and future dates.
  • Thus, results support our model that a higher male fWHR leads to perceptions of greater dominance, which in turn makes men attractive for short-term relationships
  • The results are also consistent with the non-mutually exclusive explanation that women may be favoring dominant-looking men to gain protection in a short term context at the expense of having long-term investment.

References:

High fWHR men express greater psychopathy, aggression, cheating, and exploitative behavior[edit | edit source]


High fWHR is not only associated with greater short term attractiveness to women, it is also associated with greater psychopathy, aggression, cheating, self-centered impulsivity, deception, and exploitative behavior.

For reference, a sample of control faces were found to have a mean fWHR of 1.865 (M=1.865, SD=.134, N=392). For examples of what high or low fWHR look like, see the section above. Although different references suggest a different "top" margin for judging fWHR, and thus study-to-study comparison of fWHR numbers can be less useful, utilizing a top marker of the midbrow is likely the best measure, as it incorporates the level of upper eyelid exposure into the assessment, which affects perceived dominance.

Quotes:

  • Men with high fWHR were described to be more aggressive, more fearless & dominant, higher in psychopathy, and less likely to die from direct physical violence than narrower-faced males.
  • Wider faced men are more willing to cheat in order to increase their financial gains, more readily exploit the trust of others, and more often explicitly deceive their counterparts in a negotiation.
  • More precisely, in testing both undergraduate students and young adult prison inmates (thereby capturing high variability at the high-end of the psychopathic trait continuum), we found a stable positive relationship between fWHR and total psychopathy scores within as well as across the two samples. In addition, we found a significantly positive association of the two PPI-R subfactors fearless dominance and self-centered impulsivity with fWHR; a relationship to which the inmates contributed more, but not significantly more, than did the undergraduates
  • In conclusion, we provide evidence that fWHR reliably predicts psychopathic personality in males across a wide range of psychopathy scores, thereby replicating and extending the results reported by Geniole et al. (2014).
  • We synthesize existing work by conducting a meta-analysis to estimate whether and how fWHR predicts aggression. Our results indicate a small, but significant, positive relationship between men’s fWHR and aggression.

References:

Teenage boys with 'dominant' facial features have sex earlier[edit | edit source]


Halpern & Udry (1994) conducted a 3 year long study of (n=58) teenage boys to determine the effects of sex hormones (primarily androgens) on sexual behavior. They administered a series of questionnaires conducted in the boys homes regarding their involvement in various sexual activities. The interviewer rated the subjects level of physical attractiveness.

The subjects level of pubertal development (related to the Tanner Scale) was self assessed. Facial dominance was assessed by presenting classrooms of college students with yearbook photos of the subjects in a random order and the photos were rated on a 7 point scale (1-very submissive, 7-very dominant.)

The researchers found facial dominance was strongly related to age of sexual debut and level of involvement, and the effect was even more pronounced then that of physical attractiveness.

Data:

Correlations between factors and whether the subjects had sex once or multiple times.

Factors Attractiveness Pubertal Development Wears Glasses Had coitus Multiple Copulations
Facial Dominance .36 .22 -.46 .37 .32
Attractiveness .17 -.29 .30 .29
Pubertal Development -.22 .26 .32
Wears Glasses -.01 .01
Ever Had Coitus .88

Quotes:

  • Attractiveness and dominant appearance each account for variance in sexual experience beyond that explained by pubertal development, but dominance is the better predictor. This result is consistent with our expectation that dominant looking men have earlier coital opportunities than submissive looking men.
  • Lacking data on female choice, we cannot say if dominant looking men have more sexual access because women give it to them, or because the men obtain it for themselves, or for both reasons.
  • Dominant faces are likely to be handsome or muscular, oval or rectangular in shape, and with prominent as opposed to weak brow and chin.

References:

Women who have experienced domestic violence find men with higher fWHRs more attractive[edit | edit source]


Liberz et al. (2018) conducted a study to examine victimized (pertaining both sexual molestation and domestic violence) women's perception of the facial and behavioral cues of potential male aggressive behavior.

These women were presented with a series of male faces that varied in fWHR, and were questioned as to their level of physical attraction to these males and their perceptions of the males potential tendencies towards behavioral aggression.

They were further asked to imagine these men in close physical proximity to themselves, and were asked to press an arrow key up (closer) or down (away) to assess their preferences for physical closeness to these males.

Concurrently, the actual levels of behavioral aggression of several of the men in the photographs were assessed by the researchers utilizing a simulated economic game, in which participants could 'punish' opponents by stealing points from them, to no advantage in 'winning' the game.

It was found that the women who had suffered sexual molestation during childhood perceived the men (in general) as more sexually attractive, a finding stronger in those who had been victim to IPV (intimate partner violence). The researchers also found that while the victims of IPV viewed men with higher fWHRs as more potentially aggressive, they perceived them as significantly more physically attractive then the control group of women. The victimized women perceived men with higher levels of behavioral aggression as measured by the economic game as more attractive.

Quotes:

  • Moreover, (women) who had experienced IPV rated men with higher fWHRs and men with higher values of actual aggression to be more attractive as compared to (women) without histories of IPV.
  • A reduced appraisal of threat signals and an attraction to wider-faced and more aggressive men might increase the risk for revictimization.
  • It is possible that those men with masculine facial features signal more protective behavior and security, attributes that revictimized women might desire. These “psychological barriers” seem to be important predictors of coping responses and should find more consideration in prevention programs.

Reference:

High fWHR is associated with greater lifetime reproductive success [edit | edit source]


Loehr & O'Hara (2013) examined data gathered from Finnish national archives pertaining to Finnish conscripts who fought in the Winter War with the Soviet Union that lasted from 30 November 1939 – 13 March 1940. The researchers examined photographs of the soldiers to calculate their fWHR (Facial-width to height ratio), which has been stated in previous studies to be associated with greater survival rates from traumatic injury, mating success, and aggression.

They found that men with wider faces had higher lifetime reproductive success (controlling for their chance of surviving the war). However, fWHR was not found to be significantly correlated with the chance of surviving the conflict. The researchers stated that this was possibly due to the use of modern weaponry in the war, as opposed to previous studies finding that fWHR increased rates of combat survival only for close-range (meleé) encounters.

It was also found that the Finnish soldiers with thinner faces attained higher rank in the Finnish military, seemingly contradicting previous findings in the United States that fWHR was associated with higher ranks in the United States military. The researchers stated that this could be due to men with higher fWHRs being perceived as less trustworthy, and trustworthiness could have been more culturally valued and thus rewarded by the World War II era Finnish military hierarchy then in the contemporary American military.

Quotes:

  • On 30 November 1939, the Soviet Red Army invaded Finland, starting the 3.5 month long Winter War. We used Finnish archives to collate data on survival and number of offspring for soldiers who fought in this war to explore the correlation of fWHR with rank, fitness and survival.
  • Soldiers with wider faces had more children after controlling for wartime survival, (analysis with full data; a soldier with a face 1 s.d. wider has 1.88 times as many children.
  • Previous research has found that wider-faced males are less likely to die violent deaths, but only when close physical contact is involved (e.g.death by knife wounds or strangling), and not when technology is used (death by gunshot or poisoning.)

References:

Even chickens can identify sexually dimorphic faces, to the same extent as humans[edit | edit source]


Ghirlanda, Jansson & Enquist (2002) conducted a novel study to examine the origins of the preference for attractive, sexually dimorphic faces in humans.

The researchers constructed seven male and female faces, which were obtained by 'averaging' a set of 35 facial photographs of individuals of each sex, on a spectrum from moderately to strongly sexually dimorphic, for both sexes. A group of university students (n=7 females and n=7 males) were then requested to rate the faces in a random order, on a decile (1-10) scale for sexual attractiveness : i.e 'how desirable would it be to go out on a date with this individual'.

Then the researchers utilized six chickens as experimental subjects (Gallus gallus domesticus; four being female chickens), which were rewarded with food for pecking at the faces of the humans that were of the sex opposite of their own (e.g hens male faces, cocks female faces) and trained to do so over a course of a few weeks.

The researchers note that 'no reinforcement was given on test trials', so the chickens were only trained to peck faces of the correct sex, they weren't guided to pick at any particular target.

Interestingly, it was discovered by the researchers that human and chicken preferences for opposite sex faces, as they varied on the dimension of sexual dimorphism were very heavily correlated (r=0.98); that is to say nearly identical. That means the chickens were nearly equally as likely to peck at the highly dimorphic faces as the human subjects were to prefer them as potential romantic partners.

The researcher's findings provide support for the hypothesis that human preferences for sexually dimorphic faces are innate and hardwired in our 'lizard brain' that is, there is a deep-seated desire for such aesthetic features, and this desire even predates the evolution of modern humans, with the last common ancestor of humans and chickens thought to have been a reptilian creature that lived more than 310 million years ago.

Quotes:

  • Human and chicken behavior was almost identical (correlation between the two gradients: r 2 = 0.98). Moreover, chicken and human data for each face never differed significantly.
  • We cannot of course be sure that chickens and humans processed the face images in exactly the same way. This leaves open the possibility that, while chickens use some general mechanism, humans possess instead a specially evolved mechanism for processing faces.
  • Ours is of course a preliminary study. We believe, however, that it shows the potentials of the comparative study of preferences. This method is not only relevant to the study of human faces, it can be applied to any communication system to evaluate whether its evolution has favored information transfer or rather is a product of receiver biases.

References:

Symmetry is universally beautiful and leads to more sexual partners[edit | edit source]


Facial plastic surgery significantly changes how a man's personality is perceived[edit | edit source]


To evaluate how changes in men's faces from plastic surgery manifested into changes in their perceived personalities, before and after photographs of 24 men of average age 49.3 (SD = 16.4) who underwent facial cosmetic surgery were shown to 64 women and 81 men. Evaluators rated the perceived personality traits of the photographed men before and after surgery.

Overall, post-op photos of men who underwent facial cosmetic surgery were rated as more attractive and masculine, with higher perceived social skills, trustworthiness and likability, compared to their pre-op photos. Results like this give further credence to the maxim that to a great extent: "Your personality is your looks."

Quotes:

  • The results of this study suggest that men undergoing facial cosmetic surgery may experience changes in perceived attractiveness, masculinity, and a variety of personality traits.
  • Score increases were significant for perceived attractiveness (0.29; 95% CI, 0.13-0.46), likeability (0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.57), social skills (0.25; 95% CI, 0.08-0.40), and trustworthiness (0.27, 95% CI, 0.11-0.44) when evaluating all facial cosmetic procedures together.
  • Upper blepharoplasty was associated with positive changes in perceived likeability (0.72; 95% CI, 0.06-1.50) and trustworthiness (0.74; 95% CI, 0.22-1.25).
  • Lower blepharoplasty was associated with decreased perception of risk seeking (−0.78; 95% CI, −1.45 to −0.10).
  • Face-lift was associated with increased perception of likeability (0.69; 95% CI, 0.08-1.30) and trustworthiness (0.66; 95% CI, 0.05-1.27).
  • Neck-lift was associated with increased perception of extroversion (0.60; 95% CI, 0.10-1.09) and masculinity (0.70; 95% CI, 0.21-1.19).
  • Patients who underwent rhinoplasty had improvements in perceived attractiveness (0.51; 95% CI, 0.03-1.00) and likeability (0.40; 95% CI, 0.03-1.00).
  • Chin augmentation did not show any significant improvements.

References:

Facial shape predicts perceived leadership ability and election outcomes[edit | edit source]


Quotes:

  • Split-second judgments of competence from facial images are positively correlated with real-life electoral success. Judgments of competence from briefly presented (i.e., 1/10 s) face images have predicted outcomes in elections for United States (US) congress, governor, and president. Quick leadership judgments from faces have also been found to predict voting decisions in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Ireland, Italy, and Japan. Children’s judgments of leadership can predict electoral success as well, and closely match leadership judgments made by adults.
  • Recent research has demonstrated that facial width-to-height ratio (bizygomatic face width, with length of the face defined as the distance from the upper eyelid to the top of the upper lip, see Fig. S1.) predicts leadership success in businesses with low levels of management complexity and predicts achievement drive in U.S. presidents. Recent studies have found that business leaders in the United Kingdom have higher width-to-height ratios than age and sex-matched counterparts. Facial width-to-height ratio correlates with perception of dominance and aggressive and untrustworthy behaviour, traits that likely impact leadership success.
  • Baby-faced individuals appear less competent which could influence leadership perception.
  • Leadership selection is also influenced by perceived facial masculinity (sexual dimorphism in face shape). For example, masculine face structure is preferred in leaders’ faces in times of intergroup conflict, while more feminine faces are preferred during periods where within-group relationship maintenance is emphasized.

References:

Balding men are perceived as less attractive, less dominant, older, and more appeasing[edit | edit source]


Money[edit | edit source]

A man having the "correct" race, height, and face is worth millions of dollars to women[edit | edit source]


To approximate the value of a man's race, height, and facial attractiveness to women, researchers uses a novel data set obtained from an online dating service. Their analysis was based on a detailed record of the site users’ attributes and their partner searches, which allowed them to estimate each user's preference specifications, taking into account a large number of partner characteristics.

Their findings included:

  • White and black women had the most expensive racial "preferences", with both strongly preferring to only consider men of their own races.
  • Being an Asian man requires $247,000 extra income per year compared to a white man to get equal interest from a white woman.
  • Being a black man requires $154,000 extra income per year compared to a white man to get equal interest from a white woman.
  • Being a white man requires $220,000 extra income per year compared to a black man to get equal interest from a black woman.
  • A white man must earn $24,000 less per year than an Asian man to be considered equally attractive to an Asian woman.
  • Being 5'7" requires $150,000 extra income per year compared to a 5'11" man, or $180,000 extra compared to a 6'2" man.
  • Being bottom 10% facially requires $40,000 extra income per year compared to an average man or $186,000 extra compared to a top 10% man.

If these annual costs can be applied over the decades that a long term partnership would involve, the value of a man's race, height, and face to a woman can be estimated well into the millions of dollars over a lifetime. For example, according to this data, a 5' 8" average looking Asian man (5th decile), would need to earn a total of $3,696,000 additional income over the course of a 7 year marriage to be considered equally desirable as a 5' 11.5" highly attractive (10th decile) white man, to a white woman. This is without factoring in the usual costs of divorce for such high earning men.

Data:

The Monetary Value of a Man's Race to a Woman:

The amount of income needed above baseline of $62,500 USD per year for men to be considered equal by women on the basis of their races.

For Equal Success With: Additional Income Needed by:
White Men Black Men Hispanic Men Asian Men
White Women $0 $154,000 $77,000 $247,000
Black Women $220,000 $0 $184,000 -
Hispanic Women $59,000 $30,000 $0 -
Asian Women -$24,000 $0 $28,000 $0

The Monetary Value of a Man's Height to a Woman:

The amount of money a man must earn beyond a baseline of $62,500 USD to be equally desirable as a man who is 5'11.5" tall.

Man's Height Additional Income Needed From Man
5'0" $317,000
5'2" $269,000
5'4" $221,000
5'6" $175,000
5'8" $138,000
5'10" $24,000
6'0" -$8,000
6'2" -$30,000
6'4" -$51,000
6'6" -$63,000
6'10" -$63,000

The Monetary Value of a Man's Face to a Woman:

The amount of income needed above baseline of $62,500 USD per year for men to be considered equal by women on the basis of their faces.

Man's Facial Looks Rating Additional Income Needed From Man
Average in 1st Decile $186,000
Average in 2nd Decile $169,000
Average in 3rd Decile $159,000
Average in 4th Decile $151,000
Average in 5th Decile $143,000
Average in 6th Decile $128,000
Average in 7th Decile $86,000
Average in 8th Decile $37,000
Average in 9th Decile $25,000
Average in 10th Decile $0

References:

23-33% of women intentionally mislead men they are not interested in for free meals[edit | edit source]


Collison, Howell & Harig (2019) conducted two studies of 'foodie calls,' i.e when a person (almost overwhelmingly a woman) feigns reciprocal interest in a romantic suitor with the intention of using them for a free meal.

Using Amazon's Mechanical Turk , the researchers surveyed women about their opinions of the moral acceptability of this behavior, if they had ever engaged in this behavior themselves, and, if so, how often that had engaged in this behavior.

It was found that over two studies, 23-33% of women had admitted to engaging in this behavior. Of those who did, the frequency of their 'foodie calls' were: 5% very frequently, 15% frequently, 33% occasionally, 24% rarely, and 21% very rarely.

It was found that Dark Triad traits were correlated with women propensity to engage in foodie calls and their perception of them as acceptable, but the researchers were not able to distinguish which of the sub-component 'dark traits' predicted women's tendency to engage in this behavior. It was also found that higher levels of attachment to 'traditional gender roles' were also correlated with women's chance of engaging in this behavior and their perception of it being acceptable behavior.

Quotes:

  • Despite women generally rating foodie calls as unacceptable, approximately 23% of women had engaged in a foodie call in Study 1, whereas 33% reported engaging in a foodie call in Study 2.
  • The general dark triad factor, rather than any specific trait, was the only predictor to emerge in all models.
  • Both social role theory and dark triad suggest that women with dark personality traits and traditional gender role beliefs may exploit traditional dating scripts for men. The findings support these theoretical relationships in a real-world dating situation.

References:

Women orgasm more when having sex with rich men[edit | edit source]


Pollet & Nettle (2009) conducted a study investigating women's self reported orgasm frequency and the characteristics of their partners. The two variables in particular that were examined were annual wealth and height.

The researchers used data drawn from the Chinese Health and Family Life Survey sampling 60 villages and urban neighborhoods chosen in such a way as to represent the full geographical and socioeconomic range of contemporary China (i.e the PRC, excluding Tibet).

The items in the survey pertaining to the research were answered in conditions of exceptional privacy (the participants were away from their homes, and the researchers administering the survey couldn't see the answers to the 'sensitive' questions involving sexuality).

The data was analyzed by the researchers using several models to examine the correlations between partner height, annual income (in yuan), and self-reported orgasm frequency, carefully controlling for several possibly confounding variables such as relationship satisfaction, education levels of the partner etc.

It was found that there was a significant correlation between the women's orgasm frequency and the partner's annual income, but no significant correlation existed between orgasm frequency and partner height.

Figures:

Women's orgasm frequency based on their male partner's wealth

Quotes:

  • More desirable mates cause women to experience more orgasms.
  • There may be assortative mating of desirable men with women susceptible to be highly orgasmic.
  • However, we note that the data show that the more frequent orgasm of women paired to high-income men are not explicable by those women being healthier or happier overall.

References:

Men with much lower incomes then their wives are more than twice as likely to not have sex[edit | edit source]


Kim,Tam & Muennig (2017) analysed data from the long running General Social Survey (GSS) to examine the 'socio demographic, attitudinal, and lifestyle factors that were associated with past-year sexlessness'. It was found that married men that contributed <20% of the household income were more then twice as likely to not have sex in the past year.

Quotes:

  • Among males, the multivariable analysis also showed that sexlessness was associated with providing less than 20% of the household income (OR 2.27).

References:

Photoshopping a man into a luxury apartment made women rate him as 30% more attractive[edit | edit source]


Dunn & Hill (2014) conducted a study wherein undergraduate students rated the attractiveness of a control photo of a opposite sex target in a 'neutral' apartment vs luxury. The photos were rated by two groups of participants, one group rating the control photo (n = 59) and another rating the luxury apartment photo (n = 43). The participants rated the attractiveness of the opposite sex target photo on a decile (1-10) scale.

The subjects were also asked to rate 'distracter photos' which were employed and presented in such a manner as a way of minimizing the participants ability to guess the nature and purpose of the study.

They also conducted a smaller scale preliminary study involving 20 (n = 10 male/10 female) undergraduate students, once again from the same university, who estimated the age and attractiveness of four potential opposite-sex target models. This preliminary study was used to help select the photos which were used for the main study (above).

It was found that, in both studies, that apartment context of a women's photo had no significant effect of the male raters judgement on the rated attractiveness of the photo. However, there was a significant (33% more attractive) effect for women rating the photos of the men.

Quotes:

  • Any differences in attractiveness scores given between sexes revealed in the main study could be attributed to the experimental manipulation of wealth and status alone.
  • It appears then that it may be adaptive for men to display luxury consumption for example through purchasing a sports car or expensive house/apartment as a way of enhancing their social status, leading to more mating opportunities and higher levels of fitness.
  • However, the results of this and other studies suggest that if women are attempting to increase the likelihood of attracting males through status enhancement, then this may indeed be a futile endeavour.

References:

By the end of her life, the average woman will have a negative $122,000 net fiscal impact[edit | edit source]


In the past, women had to accrue resources to survive either through their own hard work or by choosing a partner who was successful and stable enough to provide adequately for them. Through feminist restructuring of government services, however, this has long since changed.

An analysis in New Zealand on the net fiscal impact of men and women through time found that overall, men provided a net positive fiscal impact (i.e. they contributed more to taxes than they utilized in government services) from their early 20s onwards. Thus the net cumulative fiscal impact of the average man reached approximately zero by the time men died. In other words, men contributed as much as they took by the time they died, even including their retirement years.

By contrast, women did not contribute more than they took except for during the brief period of ages 45-59. By the end of the average woman's lifetime it was estimated that she ran a net deficit of around $122,000. In other words, the average woman takes $122,000 more from the government over the course of her lifetime to subsidize her lifestyle than she provides in taxes and her lifetime deficit is $114,000 more than the average man if they both live to 80+.

Figures:

Over a lifetime, a man provides in taxes roughly an equal amount as he takes from the government, while each woman runs a deficit of approximately $122,000.

Quotes:

  • On average, males start having positive net fiscal impact - their per capita tax revenue exceed the (allocated) expenditure they receive - in their early twenties. Women, on average, do not pass this 'break even' point until their mid-40s. This is due to a combination of lower workforce participation, higher health and education spending, higher income support and lower direct and indirect taxation.
  • The positive net fiscal impact women make from 45-59 never outweighs the prior negative net fiscal impacts. As a result, when the large negative net impacts of the retirement years arrive, they simply add to an already negative profile. Men, on the other hand, appear to have a positive cumulative net fiscal impact from approximately 40 until 80 years of age. For these particular taxes and public expenditures, the net fiscal incidence on men is approximately zero when cumulated over all ages.

References:

Height[edit | edit source]

A man's dating pool is set by his height; >94% of women will reject a man for being "too short"[edit | edit source]


Stulp et al (2013) used a sample of 5782 North American speed-daters making 128,104 choices to determine preferences for partner height and how height influenced the formation of a match. They found that women were most likely to choose a speed-dater 25 cm taller than themselves, whereas men were most likely to choose women only 7 cm shorter than themselves. As a consequence, matches were most likely at an intermediate height difference (19 cm) that differed significantly from the preferred height difference of both sexes.

Their data can be further analyzed to provide data about women's height cutoffs, the benefit of each inch of height for a man, and the degree of competition each man faces based on his height.

1) Cutoffs:

Their findings demonstrated the cutoffs at which women consider a man too short or too tall:

  • 90% of women will reject a man who is 5'4" based solely on his height.
  • 65% of women will reject a man who is 5'7" based solely on his height.
  • 50% of women will reject a man who is 5'8" based solely on his height.
  • 14% of women will reject a man who is 5'10" based solely on his height.
  • 1.5% of women will reject a man who is 6' based solely on his height.
  • Past 6'2", women begin to increase rejections of men for being too tall.
  • 30% of women believe there is no such thing as a man being "too tall."
  • Over 94% of women will reject a man solely for him being too short.


The percent of women willing to accept a man as a potential partner based solely on his height.


2) Every Inch Counts:

Further analysis of their data demonstrates the importance of every inch of height for men, as two inches of height gain for a man can be found to have the following results:

  • A man in the 5'4-5'6" range will have more than double the potential number of female partners with 2" height gain.
  • A 5'4" man will have 2.3 times as many potential female partners by gaining 2" height.
  • A 5'7" man will have 1.86 times as many potential female partners by gaining 2" height.
  • Benefits become insignificant past 5'10".
  • Below 5'1" a 2" height gain also makes an insignificant difference, as even after 2" gain, a man at this height is still "too short" for most women to consider.


The multiplication in dating pool size a man experiences for a 2" gain in height due to women's height cutoffs


3) Competition:

Because the few women who are willing to date a shorter men are also generally willing to date a taller man as well, the competition for women willing to date shorter men becomes extremely high. This means:

  • A 5' man must "beat" over 12 men (most of whom will be taller) to get a girl accepting of his height.
  • A 5'4" man will have to "beat" over 7 other men (most of whom will be taller) to get a girl accepting of his height.
  • 5'10 to 6'4" men have the least competition as the demand for these men outpaces their supply, and statistically overall women must compete for these men rather than vice versa.


The number of men competing for a woman who will accept their height at each male height

Reference:

Women are happiest with their partner's heights when they are 8.24" inches taller then them[edit | edit source]


Stulp, Bunk & Pollet (2013) conducted a study regarding the preferences for height in a romantic partner of (N=693) mainly ethnic Dutch and German university students. The were asked a series of questions regarding their preferences in regards to the height of a potential partner, which was broken in three categories, minimally acceptable, ideal and maximally acceptable.

There was also queried as to their current relationship status, and if they were currently in a relationship, their partners height. Finally they were asked to indicate their level of satisfaction with their own height, on a 100 point scale.

It was found that an individual's height correlated significantly with preferred height in both sexes, with the taller men generally preferring much shorter women and the shorter women preferring much taller men. Shorter men and taller women both tended to prefer smaller height differences.

The researchers analyzed the data of the participants in relationships and found that women were most satisfied with their partner's heights when they were 8.24 inches (20.93 cm) taller them themselves, with men being the most satisfied with a partner 3.25 inches shorter (8.26 cm). Partner height was much more important for explaining partner satisfaction for women then men, by more then four times the variance.

It was also discovered that there was a curvilinear relation with men's heights and their self-reported satisfaction with their height, with the men that were 6' 4.5 inches tall (193.73 cm) being the most satisfied with their heights.

Thus, it was found that women and men disagreed on the 'ideal' height difference between partners in heterosexual relationships. Women desired taller men much more then men desired shorter women, women were far more restrictive with their minimum height requirements, and there existed a greater consensus among women as to the preferred height of a male partner. Lastly, it was shown that shorter women had some of the strongest preferences for very tall men, thus further limiting the partnership options for short men.

Quotes:

  • Men were most satisfied when their partner was slightly shorter than themselves, whereas women were most satisfied when their partner was much taller than themselves.
  • Women were much more restrictive in their range of acceptable heights compared to men. That is, women were more likely to rule out certain heights as completely unacceptable.
  • The increased satisfaction with their own height among taller men is also in line with studies indicating that tall men have higher self-esteem, display less jealousy towards other men, and display higher levels of subjective well-being.

References:

Short men have twice the suicide rate of tall men[edit | edit source]


Researchers in Sweden surveyed government data including 79% of all men born in Sweden in 1950–1981 to identify health outcomes for these men. They found that every extra 5 cm of height reduced suicide rates by 9%, such that the tallest men had half the suicide rate of shorter men.

They suggest several reasons for this difference. They note that shorter men tend to end up with lower socioeconomic status as they grow up, irrespective of their childhood social class. Additionally, as women judge shorter men negatively, they are therefore less likely to marry, which generally protects against suicide. An association between shorter height and higher risk of substance abuse was also found.

Quotes:

  • We found a twofold higher risk of suicide in short men than tall men.
  • The associations do not appear to be attributable to socioeconomic confounding or prenatal influences on growth.
  • Short individuals are more likely to be in a low social class as adults, independent of their childhood social class.
  • In a subset of subjects, however, we found that educational level, a marker of socioeconomic position, had little effect on the associations.
  • Marriage protects against suicide, and short individuals may be less likely to marry than taller ones.

References:

Taller men experience a better quality of life in almost every respect[edit | edit source]


References:

'Short man syndrome' is a myth - taller men are quicker to lose their tempers than short men[edit | edit source]


Researchers from the University of Central Lancashire conducting an experiment for the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) found taller men were more likely to lose their temper.

Men of different heights (ten men of 'average height' and ten men 5' 5" or below) duelled with wooden sticks but one of the subjects deliberately provoked the other by rapping them across the knuckles. The research was designed to test Short Man Syndrome - or "Napoleon complex" - the theory that shorter men are more aggressive to dominate those who are taller than them. Heart monitors revealed it was the taller men who flew off the handle more quickly and hit back.

References:

Taller men have more partners and father more children[edit | edit source]


Mueller & Muzur (2001) examined survey data derived from surviving graduates of the class of 1950 of the United States Military Academy at West Point, that provided family and marriage information. These data were merged with measures of academic, career, athletic and social performance while at the academy.

In the 1950s West Point followed the practice of assigning cadets to companies according to their height; so they could present a uniform presence on the parade grounds, thus data pertaining to the cadet's heights could be discovered, with the Academy sorting cadets into 12 seperate groups, depending on their heights. The 'facial dominance' of the cadets was also measured and collected, judging by yearbook photos.

It was found that taller cadets subsequently had a greater number of marriages, a younger second wife if remarried after a divorce, and an overall greater number of children. The researchers found no evidence that the cadets being subsequently married to more fertile women explained this discrepancy.

It was also found that cadet's heights had no effect on their future economic success (a finding that the researchers noted was unusual), therefore, the greater economic success that taller men generally experience didn't explain their greater reproductive success.

Other studies have also confirmed these findings:(Pawlowski, Dunbar,& Lipowicz, 2000). There is also evidence that taller men are more likely to have long term mating partners and to have more partners than shorter men (Nettle, 2002).

Quotes:

  • Taller men had more reproductive opportunities (more marriages, younger second wives) and used them to have more children than shorter men. The chances of survival into adulthood of taller men’s children were not lower.
  • The positive effect of height on reproductive performance was not mediated by men’s social status, i.e., their military rank, or by the measures of academic, athletic, and military talent which helped in gaining high status.
  • Thus, selection seemingly follows most closely a “horse race” model, with a few winners taking most of the prize, measured in fitness differentials. Discerning no fitness disadvantage to tallness, we are left with the possibility of unconstrained directional sexual selection in favor of ever increasing male height within the observed phenotype range.

References:

Sperm banks require that men be at least 5'8" tall[edit | edit source]


Sperm banks usually require that men be at least 5 feet 8 inches tall. 5 feet 8 inches corresponds to the 35.3rd percentile for height for males aged over 20 years old in the United States.

Given that the average South Asian, Southeast or East Asian man, or Hispanic man is around 5'7" in America, this suggests that women's reproductive market forces have determined most men of these ethnicities are not genetically fit for fathering their children, based solely on their heights.

In fact, fully 35.3% of men in America would be deemed unfit for reproduction based on this cutoff, factoring in height alone, without factoring in the general requirement for sperm donors to also possess a college degree (a stealth proxy for IQ being above a certain threshold).

References:

The #1 most important thing to women in a man's online dating bio is if he says he is 6' tall[edit | edit source]


The dating website Badoo analyzed its most successful users' "about me" sections, taking note of the most frequently used words among popular users to figure out which words best predict swiping success for a male and female user. Successful female profiles listed "love", "drink", and "music" in their top three. The only physical attribute listed was "blue eyes" at #7.

By contrast, for men, the #1 most successful entry was "6'", i.e. indicating that the man was 6' tall.

The top 10 words associated with successful profiles were, in descending order:

  • Women's Profiles: Love, Drink, Music, LOL, Gym, Coffee, Blue Eyes, :), Beer, Foodie
  • Men's Profiles: 6', Family, Dogs, Dinner, Beard, Travel, Music, Relationship, Gym, Car

Common advice for a man who struggles in the swipe-based dating economy is to ensure his bio is well written to show off his personality. If showcasing personality is the purpose, it is difficult to understand why a man's height would be the absolute most important thing to a woman he could place in his bio.

References:

Taller men report more satisfaction in their romantic relationships than shorter men[edit | edit source]


Brewer & Riley (2009) examined the relationship between man's height and its connection to their level of satisfaction in their romantic relationships.

The sample was comprised of men (n=99, mean age= 27.3), currently in a romantic relationship. The stature of the participants ranged from 155cm (5' 1") to 196 cm (6' 5.2").

The participants were presented with a questionnaire that asked a range of autobiographical questions, including age and height, (which while not being perfectly accurate, it has been demonstrated that self-reported height is generally very strongly correlated with actual measured height.)

The participants were further requested to rate their level of relationship satisfaction on a 7 point Likert scale, and were further requested to complete a measure of the level of jealousy they felt in their romantic relationships. Subsequently, they also answered another psychological inventory, the purpose of which was to measure the likelihood and frequency of them displaying Mate-Guarding behaviors (i.e. controlling behavior, displaying wealth to their partner, improving their own physical appearance, displaying greater care and emotional support to their partners, displaying greater submission to their romantic partners and so on), in their romantic relationships.

It was found that the taller men generally reported greater satisfaction with their romantic relationships. The researchers stated that the cause of this relationship was possibly because their partners were more attentive and warm towards them then the shorter men's, and that the taller men were also potentially more likely to be partnered with more desirable women.

It was also found that the tall men were less likely to report being jealous in general towards their partners (apart from in unambiguous situations pertaining to their partner's infidelity), and less suspicious of their fidelity. The researchers stated that the explanation for this may be that shorter men run a greater risk of being cuckholded by their partners than taller men, and this may explain this tendency. The researchers found that the shorter men were most likely to increase the love and care they displayed to their partner, as a mate retention strategy, as opposed to attempting to physically intimidate potential rivals, or making attempts to monopolize their partner's time, along with other more aggressive mate guarding strategies.

Quotes:

  • The results indicate that male height predicts relationship satisfaction, cognitive and behavioral jealousy and the use of various mate retention behaviors.
  • The current study revealed that tall men are less likely to report jealousy with respect to jealous cognitions (i.e. suspicion or concern) or behaviors (intended to minimize the threat)
  • In the current study, short men were most likely to adopt mate retention behaviors such as increasing the love and care that they show their partner. In this manner short men demonstrate that they are aware of the risk of cuckoldry but attempt to increase the desirability of a woman's current relationship rather than adopting more risky strategies that encourage comparisons with a rival or appear aggressive.
  • Although there may be less incentive for tall men to interpret ambiguous situations jealously (for example a lower likelihood that their partner would attract a higher quality mate than for short men), when unambiguous situations occur, men experience an emotional reaction, regardless of height.

References:

Body[edit | edit source]

36.4% of US male online daters are now resorting to anabolic steroids & bulimia to compete[edit | edit source]


Researchers from Harvard in 2019 surveyed online dating users and non dating app users in the United States using Amazon's MTurk (Mechanical Turk) platform to evaluate if online dating usage was associated with risky image enhancing behaviors. Their sample included 1098 women and 628 men. 33% of the men in their survey reported using online dating. 36.4% of male online daters reported using Anabolic Steroids (AS), as opposed to only 3.8% of non online dating men who reported AS use.

The portion of those surveyed who identified as "African-American" were the most likely to use AS (Odds-ratio of 3.665) followed closely by Hispanics (OR 3.413) compared to Whites. The overall odds-ratio of a dating app user to use AS compared to a non dating app user was 26.926.

For men using online dating vs. not using online dating, the prevalence of the following behaviors were assessed: anabolic steroid use, vomiting for weight control, laxative use, diet pills, fasting for weight loss, and muscle building supplements.

All behaviors were dramatically more common in men than women, despite common portrayal of eating disorders as "female issues". Specifically, for example, vomiting for weight control (bulimia) was found in 22.4% of female online daters, and 36.4% of male online daters. Thus male online daters are 1.6x as likely as female online daters to have bulimia.

Results did not suggest different odds of any behavior based on sexual orientation.

These findings can most easily be interpreted as representing what is known in evolutionary biology as "fisherian runaway sexual selection". Fisherian runaway is the process of men taking on increasingly extreme and maladaptive traits to increase their sexual dimorphism, in response to female preference for these traits. It is the natural result of a more and more competitive sexual marketplace that is otherwise cutting them out.

Data:

Behavior % of Men
Online Dating Not Online Dating
Anabolic Steroids 36.4 3.8
Vomiting For Weight Control 36.4 5.3
Laxative Use 41.1 7.6
Diet Pills 40.2 5.0
Fasting For Weight Loss 54.1 27.0
Muscle Building Supplement 49.8 18.1

Quotes:

  • Men who use dating apps had 3.2 to 14.6 times the odds of engaging in all six UWCBs compared to men who were non-users.
  • We also documented elevated engagement in many UWCBs among Asian American, Hispanic and other or mixed dating app users. We did not, however, find elevated odds of UWCBs based on sexual orientation.

References:

  • Tran, A. Suharlim, C. Mattie, H. Davison, K. Agénor, M. Austin, S. A. 2019. Dating app use and unhealthy weight control behaviors among a sample of U.S. adults: a cross-sectional study. Journal of Eating Disorders Volume 7, Article number: 16. [FullText]

All women find the bodies of 'strong looking men' more attractive than those with weaker bodies[edit | edit source]


Two studies by Sell, Lukazsweski, and Townsley (2017) published by the Royal Society examining the preferences of 160 young female raters, found a very strong (r=0.80) correlation between bodily attractiveness and rated physical strength. Furthermore, they discovered that contrary to popular views about men's bodily attractiveness, there was a linear relationship between perceived strength and bodily attractiveness, i.e the men that were perceived as the strongest were also perceived as the most attractive.

The authors of the study also found that that there was no statistically significant portion of the female sample that had a preference for weaker looking men when evaluating male bodily attractiveness.

In addition, the researchers found that ratings of bodily attractiveness were only moderately correlated with actual measured strength at r = 0.38 (p <0.01, when the photos of the subjects were viewed from the front). This suggests that a large part of the contribution of perceived strength to attractiveness is only an 'ornament' (similar to the function of a peacock's tail), and therefore, is not necessarily indicative of actual measured strength. The researchers state that it could also be that some things that contribute to actual measured strength are not viewed as attractive: e.g. excess fat storage.

Quotes:

  • Ratings of strength are a robust and much larger predictor of bodily attractiveness than either height or weight.
  • None of the 160 women in our study who rated attractiveness produced a statistically significant preference for weaker men (all p > 0.05) ... In other words, we could find no evidence that there exists a sizeable population of women who prefer physically weaker men when evaluating male bodies.
  • Height is attractive even independent of making a man look strong. Controlling for how strong a man actually looks, raters still classify taller men as more attractive in two of the three samples.
  • Weight is unattractive after controlling for how strong a man looks...this is consistent with the hypothesis that women's mate choice mechanisms respond to muscle mass positively but large stores of body fat negatively.
  • Height, weight and ratings of strength collectively account for approximately 80% of the variance in male bodily attractiveness.
  • Cues of upper body strength account for most of the variance in men's bodily attractiveness.
  • Contrary to popular theories of men's physical attractiveness, there was no evidence of a nonlinear effect; the strongest men were the most attractive in all samples.

References:

Facial attractiveness contributes more to overall attractiveness than body, particularly in men [edit | edit source]


Currie and Little (2009) conducted a study regarding relative contributions of facial and bodily attractiveness to overall physical attractiveness. Participants (males n=127 females n=133) were shown a randomized sequence of masked (to minimize potential confounds, such as hair and clothing) body images, then face images, then combined images (the images were presented side to side, not synthesized into a full body photo) and were then requested to rate these the physical attractiveness of these images. A separate group of unisex raters were also requested to rate the images, with correlations between the ratings of both groups being very high.

The participants were then requested to rate the desirability of the models in the photographs in both a short-term and long-term mating context.

It was found that facial attractiveness was a far more significant predictor of overall physical attractiveness then bodily attractiveness, for both sexes. Bodily attractiveness however, was also significant contributor to overall attractiveness for both sexes, with it being relatively more important compared to facial attractiveness for men evaluating the short-term attractiveness of women as compared to the long-term condition. The researchers found there was no such moderating effect of mating context in regards to women's evaluations of male attractiveness.

Interestingly, the researchers also found evidence that suggests women demand that male's bodily attractiveness be above a certain threshold before he is rated as physically attractive overall, regardless of his facial attractiveness.

Quotes:

  • Ratings of facial attractiveness were a better predictor than ratings of bodily attractiveness of the rating given to images of the face and body combined.
  • Interestingly, the body was relatively more important in male ratings of female images under the short-term condition compared with the long-term condition. The effect of facial attractiveness was relatively constant under both conditions.
  • There is some evidence for a hierarchical interaction between facial attractiveness and bodily attractiveness in determining overall physical attractiveness, especially in female ratings of male bodies. The male models with the three lowest mean ratings of their bodies had mean combined face and body ratings lower than either the independent body ratings or the independent face ratings. This suggests that the body needs to be above a certain level of attractiveness before the overall physical attractiveness is rated at a higher level.

References:

The most attractive BMI range for men is ~24.5-27 and for women ~17-19 as it is most youthful[edit | edit source]


In the 2006 version of Hitsch et al.'s MIT Research Paper "What Makes You Click", probabilities of receiving first contacts were assessed for a large dating site over a 3.5 month period in 2003 (n=22,000) based on male and female BMI. It was found that men greatly preferred women of BMI around 17, which researchers noted corresponds roughly to a supermodel's thinness. By contrast, women on average contacted men with a BMI of 27 most often, which would correspond to a very muscular or mildly overweight man, depending on his physical conditioning.

The effects of modifying weight were most pronounced for women, where for example a woman of BMI 25 would be expected to receive 90% more first-contact messages if she attained a BMI of 17 instead. Similarly powerful outcome modifying effects based on weight were not possible for men.

Other studies however have shown similar outcomes. One study assessing the most attractive female BMI involved showing people 21 pictures of women of varying mass, and asking them to order them in attractiveness. Both men and women rated these women's pictures the same way, and both genders suggested the very thinnest women provided at a BMI of 19 were most attractive. Raters suggested they felt the thinnest pictures were also the most youthful looking. Further modeling from this data to incorporate age biases suggested the ideal female BMI would be therefore somewhere between 17-20, as it would correspond to the average BMI of a young 18-20 year old with maximal fertility and minimal risk of future disease.

Another study to assess the most attractive BMI for each gender used computer generated simulations of men and women, which were rated in attractiveness by both men and women. The most attractive BMI for men was suggested by men to be 25.9 and by women to be 24.5. The most attractive BMI for women was suggested by both men and women to be exactly the same at 18.8.

Thus these studies suggest slightly different ideal BMIs for each gender but with a consistent range of approximately 17-19 for women and 24.5-27 for men.

Figures:

First contact average outcomes for an online dating site based on BMI standardized relative to a BMI of 22-24 for each gender

Quotes:

  • The optimal BMI for men is about 27. For women, on the other hand, the optimal BMI is about 17, which is considered under-weight and corresponds to the figure of a supermodel. A woman with such a BMI receives 90% more first-contact e-mails than a woman with a BMI of 25. (Hitsch et al., 2006)

References:

Men prefer low waist-hip ratios in women as they signal youth[edit | edit source]


WHR is a ratio calculated by measuring the waist circumference and dividing that measurement by the hip circumference. Lower WHR in women has often been proposed by researchers to be generally desired by men because it is claimed to constitute an 'honest signal' of the woman's fertility.

Lassek & Gaulin (2019) conducted a study to put this claim under empirical scrutiny. Drawing on U.S data from large health surveys, it was found that younger women (15-19) had the lowest WHR, and that women's WHRs generally increased with age.

They also found that a low WHR was strongly associated with nulligravidity (having never been pregnant) and higher stores of the Omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in these women's fat stores. This acid is crucial for healthy infant brain development, typically imparted to the infant through the consumption of the mother's breast milk.

Thus, the conclusion of the researchers was that a lower WHR was desired by men because it was an general indicator of nubility (youth) rather then being an indicator of greater fertility in general. They noted that this finding would likely prove controversial, and opined that the fertility hypothesis was likely promoted over the nubility hypothesis because of societal discomfort over the potential implications of this hypothesis. Namely claims that this finding will be used to justify sexual attraction to women under the legal age of consent.

Quotes:

  • Moreover, both BMI and waist/stature ratios were also significantly lower in the nubile age group than in older women.
  • A male choosing a nubile female avoids investing in children sired by other men and possible conflict with the mother (his mate) over allocation of her parental effort among his children and the children of her prior mates. By definition, a nubile woman is not investing time and energy in other men's children because she is nulliparous.
  • A small waist size together with relatively more gluteo-femoral fat serves as a strong direct indicator that a woman has reached the age of sexual maturity and her reproductive resourced are untapped. Men attracted to these anthropometric indicators should have an increased likelihood of having offspring with better brain development.
  • In contemporary populations, where there are significant socioeconomic and human capital costs to teen pregnancy,there are often decidedly negative attitudes about teenage sexuality, pregnancy, and marriage, and toward older men who pursue teenage women. Thus, suggestions that nubile females are especially attractive may not not fit well with social-policy priorities. On the other hand, because it ostensibly focuses on physiological states rather than on age related reproductive value,the health-and-fertility hypothesis is free of psychological implications about the inherent attractiveness of youth.

References:

Even congenitally blind men prefer a low waist-hip ratio in women[edit | edit source]


Karremans, Frankenhuis, and Arons (2009) conducted a study comparing the preference for a lower waist-hip ratio, a trait argued to be near universally desired by men cross culturally, between a sample of congenitally blind men (n=19) and (n=38) sighted men; half of whom were blindfolded.

These men were invited into a mobile van which doubled as a laboratory and asked to rate the bodily attractiveness of "two mannequins with an adjustable waist and hips", the researchers adjusted the waist and hip circumferences such that the mannequins differed in WHR: one 0.70, and the other 0.8. A ratio of 0.7 has been generally portrayed as ideal in such studies, but the researchers noted that this assumption is based on studies where 0.7 was the lowest WHR examined, and that an even lower ratio may be even more desirable.

The researchers findings were:

  • "The study demonstrates that congenitally blind men, like their sighted counterparts, prefer a low female WHR."
  • Although both sighted and blind men preferred the lower WHR, the effect was stronger for sighted men who visually inspected the bodies
  • This implies while there is an innate, instinctual preference among men for a lower WHR, this preference can also be strengthened by visual input.

References:

A man's muscle building capacity is primarily determined by genetics[edit | edit source]


Penis[edit | edit source]

Women most prefer penises longer than 84.8% of all men's[edit | edit source]


A study by Prause et al. examined the preference for penis size in their male partners among women. It found that presented with scale 3D printed dildos, women preferred a penis of slightly larger circumference and length for one-time (length = 6.4 inches/16.3 cm, circumference = 5.0 inches/12.7 cm) versus long-term (length = 6.3 inches/16.0 cm, circumference = 4.8 inches/12.2 cm) sexual partners. Which according to the calcSD Percentile Calculator demonstrates women preferred a penis fully one standard deviation above the average penis size for one-night stands.

This works out to a penis size at the 84.8th percentile for length and 71.8th percentile for girth.

21% of the study's participants also admitted they had terminated a relationship due to the partner's penis being 'too small' vs 7% ending a relationship due to the partner's penis being 'too big'.

References:

  • Prause N, Park J, Leung S, Miller G. 2015. Women's Preferences for Penis Size: A New Research Method Using Selection among 3D Models. PLoS ONE, 10(9): e0133079. [FullText]
  • calcSD Penile Percentile calculator. [Web]

Larger penis size has an equivalent effect on male attractiveness to women as greater height[edit | edit source]


A study by Mautz et al. published in PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2013) where women rated life sized projections of 3D male bodies, which varied on such dimensions as shoulder to waist width ratio, stature and flaccid penis length, concluded (in somewhat contradiction to the results of the above study, which examined preferences for erect and not flaccid penis length) that "surprisingly, larger penis size and greater height had almost equivalent positive effects on male attractiveness" and that size of flaccid penis that was seen as more attractive by women, didn't decrease at the upper range examined (at least up to the limit of 13 cm, or 5.11 inches used in the study) along with greater height similarly always being more attractive.

Although the three parameters examined significantly interacted with each other, such that one needed to meet a certain threshold in all three to be seen as attractive, so a large penis therefore can't compensate for having excessively wide hips and narrow shoulders or short stature or so on.

A video of a researcher discussing the results of the study is available here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Be6dTdx1qxs

References:

  • Mautz, B. S. Wong, B. B. M. Peters, R. A. Jennions, M. D. 2013. Penis size interacts with body shape and height to influence male attractiveness. PNAS April 23, 2013 110 (17) 6925-6930. [FullText]

Women who prefer longer penises are more likely to have vaginal orgasms[edit | edit source]


Costa, R. M., Miller, G. F., & Brody, S. (2012) conducted an online survey of n=323 'coitally experienced women'. The aim of the survey was to test the hypothesis that women who preferred a longer penis in their male sexual partners, had more frequent vaginal orgasms during sexual intercourse.

The respondents were asked the question: “All things being equal, are you more likely to have an orgasm from penis-in-vagina intercourse with a man who has a somewhat larger than average penis length? (Assume that average erect penis length is the length of a £20 note or any U.S. dollar bill)".

The respondents were required to report if they were more likely or less to have an orgasm while having intercourse with a man with a longer penis, or if there was no difference in the effects of different penis lengths on their chance of having an orgasm from sexual intercourse.

The respondents could also indicate if they didn't often experience orgasms from sexual intercourse, or they had not had enough sexual partners to make such a comparison.

The respondents who reported that the men with the longer penises were more likely to make them orgasm were seperated into one group, and the women who indicated they were less likely to orgasm with a sexual partner with a longer penis, or that the partner's penis length made no difference to their chance of obtaining an orgasm from penetration were seperated into a different group. The ones who didn't often experience orgasms from PIV intercourse, or hadn't had enough sexual partners to correctly determine, were excluded from the analyses, leaving a sample of n= 160 women (mean age 25.89 years old).

It was found that women who preferred longer penises in their male partners were more likely to experience an orgasm from penis-in-vagina (PIV) intercourse, but there was no relation between preference for larger penises and their likelihood of experiencing a clitoral orgasm. It was also found that the women who were more likely to orgasm from longer penises were not more orgasmic overall, compared to the other women in the sample.

The authors stated that this suggests that a longer penis is a relevant aspect of female mate choice, and that therefore, the male penis likely acquired its distinct morphology partly due to the sexual selection pressures exerted by ancestral females.

Quotes:

  • Women’s frequency of vaginal orgasm is associated with preference for deeper penile-vaginal stimulation, as indicated by greater importance given to longer than average penises. In contrast to the assertions common in sexology, penis size appears important to many women, and this is consistent with evolutionary hypotheses concerning the mate choice functions of vaginal orgasm.
  • The resulting male anxiety about penis size may not reflect internalized, culturally arbitrary masculines stereotypes, but an accurate appreciation that size matters to many women.
  • Like many men’s desire to have a longer than average penis, the desire of (especially vaginally orgasmic) women to have a man with a longer than average penis may reflect lessons learned from real sexual experiences rather than internalization of arbitrary stereotypes.

References:

  • Costa RM, Miller GF, Brody S. 2012. Women who prefer longer penises are more likely to have vaginal orgasms (but not clitoral orgasms): implications for an evolutionary theory of vaginal orgasm. J Sex Med, 9(12):3079-88. [Abstract]

90% of women agree that penis girth is more important than length for their sexual satisfaction[edit | edit source]


A survey of women found that 90% reported penis girth was more important for their sexual satisfaction than penis length. None reported that it did not matter or they could not tell the difference.

Quotes:

  • Of the 50 females surveyed, 45 reported that width felt better, with only 5 reporting length felt better (chi square = 32.00, df = 1, p < .001).
  • No females reported that they could not tell any difference.
  • Women reported that penis width was more important for their sexual satisfaction than penis length. The results were statistically significant. Penis width needs to be given more consideration, and taken into account when one discusses penis size.
  • Penis width may be important due to a penis thick at the base providing greater clitoral stimulation as the male thrusts into the female during sexual intercourse.

References:

  • Eisen R. 2001. Penis size: Survey of female perceptions of sexual satisfaction. BMC Womens Health, 1: 1. [FullText]

Voice[edit | edit source]

Men with deeper voices are more attractive and have more children and sexual partners[edit | edit source]


Apicella et al. (2008) conducted a study of the Hadza hunter-gatherer tribe in Tanzania, which consisted of male subjects speaking into an auditory recording device to record vocal pitch and also reporting their reproductive histories. The Hadza do not conduct arranged marriages, women are free to choose their marital partners. The authors found:

  • Voice pitch alone explained approximately 42% of the variance in men's reproductive success.
  • "On the basis of these findings, we speculate that the associations reported between reproductive success and voice pitch in men are likely to be mediated by greater access to fecund women."
  • "Finally, we were unable to confirm paternity, so we cannot rule out the possibility that, men with low voice pitch may just have more confidence in their paternity than men with high voice pitch."
  • The authors concluded that voice pitch has been under sexual selection throughout human history.

Another study by Puts (2005) recorded the vocal samples of a (N=111) males from the University of Pittsburgh and asked them to report their number of recent sexual partners. He also had (n=142) female students in various states of ovulation (conception risk) rate the attractiveness of the male voice samples, based on whether they were desired for a short or long term relationship. It was found:

  • Lower voices were perceived as more attractive, particularly in fertile women for short-term relationships.
  • The authors of the study stated low vocal pitch in males is attractive to women possibly because it denotes "good genes", benefits males in male to male competition for mates, or it simply developed due to "Fisherian Runaway sexual selection" (i.e The 'sexy son' hypothesis)
  • Lower vocal pitch weakly predicted male participants’ self-reported number of sexual partners over the past year (r=.17)

References:

  • Apicella CL, Feinberg DR, Marlowe FW. 2007. Voice pitch predicts reproductive success in male hunter-gatherers. Biol Lett, 3(6): 682–684. [FullText]
  • Puts, DA. 2005. Mating context and menstrual phase affect women's preferences for male voice pitch. Evolution and Human Behavior, 26(5): 388-397. [Abstract] [FullText]

Among male CEOs, voice pitch is a significant predictor of earnings[edit | edit source]


Mayew et al. (2013) conducted a study analyzing the vocal pitch of 792 male CEOs using acoustics software and found:

  • A deeper voice was significantly associated with increased salaries, and size of the firm managed by the CEOs.
  • This was most likely due to CEOs with deeper voices being favored more for leadership positions, due to them being perceived as possessing more "leadership qualities".
  • The oft-lamented dearth of female CEOs and the corporate pay gap may be partially due to this factor, as women typically have much higher pitched voices then men. It was found that the median firm size run by a women was remarkably similar to the what it would be if vocal pitch was the sole determinate of firm size for someone with a vocal pitch of 210 Hz, roughly corresponding to the mid-range of typical female variance in vocal pitch.
  • Body size, and fWHR are not significantly correlated with vocal pitch, therefore the effects of vocal pitch seen in this study are not confounded by these factors.

Quotes:

  • A 1% decrease in voice pitch is associated with a $30 million increase in the size of the firm managed, and in turn, $19 thousand more in annual compensation.
  • If voice pitch was the sole determinant of firm size for a female CEO, our estimate ... would imply that the size of the firm run by a female CEO with a voice pitch of 210 Hz would be about $1.5 billion. For the female CEOs listed in the S&P 1500 stock index during our sample period, the median firm size is strikingly similar at roughly $1.7 billion in assets.
  • Our evidence is consistent with a trait known to indicate success in biological competition also being associated with success in securing leadership positions at top corporations.

References:

  • Mayew WJ, Parsons CA, Venkatachalama M. 2013. Voice pitch and the labor market success of male chief executive officers. Evolution and Human Behavior, 34(4): 243-248. [Abstract] [FullText]

Lower vocal pitch predicts who will win an election[edit | edit source]


References:

Age[edit | edit source]

It is normal for healthy men to find pubescent & prepubescent females sexually arousing[edit | edit source]


Scientific studies of male arousal are often done using phallometry (i.e measuring penile tumescence in response to the presented images), which allows objective measurement of the men's involuntary erections. Many studies have been done to assess what ages of females healthy nondeviant men are aroused by.

One of the first major studies on this subject (Freund and Costell, 1970) involved 48 healthy young men of average age 20 enrolled in compulsory military service with no prior history of any mental or physical problems. These men were wired for phallometry, pictures were shown to them of naked males and females of all ages, and their penile responses were recorded. Categories for ages of pictures were: children 4-10 yrs, adolescents 12-16 yrs, adults 17-36 yrs.

The strongest penile response overall was to adult females. However, the response to adolescent females was almost exactly as strong as the response to adult females. Furthermore, 52-58% of healthy men experienced a positive penile response indicating arousal to female children. The control response to males of all ages was very low.

This result has since been replicated many times over the following decades. The conclusion scientific researchers have drawn from this study and others is that it is therefore normal for a healthy heterosexual man to be capable of sexual arousal by adolescent females in almost all cases, and even to be capable of arousal to female children in more than half of cases.

Many people in modern society will attempt to label any man who is sexually aroused by any female under 18 years old "a deviant." Scientifically, however, we can see there would be nothing deviant about any such arousal. It would in fact be completely normal. Whether any such arousal should be acted upon is a different subject altogether. Regardless, it can likely be agreed that vilifying men for simply possessing and acknowledging the natural, healthy sex drive they were born with is not helpful or productive.

Figures:

Normal erectile responses for healthy nondeviant men (Freund and Costell 1970)

Quotes:

  • A series of studies in the 1970s and 1980s consistently showed that gynephilic men experience sexual arousal to prepubescent girls.
  • Freund and Costell (1970) first demonstrated that in terms of relative arousal, gynephilic men showed the most increase to adult and pubescent females, the greatest decrease to all age categories of males, and arousal to prepubescent females falling between the two.
  • Freund, McKnight, Langevin, and Cibiri (1972) assessed nondeviant gynephilic men and again found arousal even to the youngest girls (aged 6-8 years) was significantly greater than to males or to neutral images.
  • Freund et al. (1972) created slides of specific body regions of the different age and gender groups, with results indicating greater arousal to the genitals and buttocks of young girls (aged 8-11 years) than to neutral slides.
  • In a study examining nondeviant heterosexual and homosexual men, heterosexual men again showed significantly greater arousal to static nude images of all age categories of females than to male or neutral stimuli (Freund, Langevin, Cibiri, & Zajac, 1973).
  • These patterns of arousal were replicated by both Frenzel and Lang (1989) and Blanchard, Lykins, et al. (2009).
  • This pattern has been termed the “classical control profile” (Frenzel & Lang, 1989). (Lykins et al. 2010)

References:

  • Lykins A, Cantor J, Kuban M, Blak T, Dickey R, Klassen PE, Blanchard, R. 2010. Sexual Arousal to Female Children in Gynephilic Men. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 22(3): 279-89. [Abstract] [FullText]
  • Freund K, Costell R. 1970. The structure of erotic preference in the nondeviant male. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 8(1): 15-20. [Abstract]

Men downplay their sexual attraction to adolescent girls, even where they are of legal age[edit | edit source]


Bennett, Lowe & Petrova (2015) aiming to replicate the findings of a previous research into the subject (e.g: O’Donnell, Lowe, Brotherton, & Bennett, 2014) examined men's (n=36; mean age 34.5) ratings of their level of sexual attraction to photographs of adolescent girls at level 3 or 4 on the Tanner scale of pubertal development. The true age of the girls in the photographs was obscured by the researchers; they labelled the photos deceptively, claiming the same girls were either 14-15 or 16-17 years of age, respectively.

Three sets of photographs were presented to the participants: seven of women identified as being 19-25 years old, 30 of men identified as being between 16-27 years old and those of adolescent girls; labelled as either 14-15 years old or 16-17 years old. No participant saw the same photograph with different age labels, half the sample saw the same photos of girls labelled with one of the age ranges listed above.

The reaction time (in milliseconds) of the participants using a 7 key response pad (with numbers 1-7; indicating their level of sexual attraction to the presented photos) was also logged by the researchers, with the participants told to press the appropriate key representing their evaluation of the target photo as quickly as possible.

It was found that the men rated the photographs of the same girls as significantly less sexually attractive when they were depicted as being 14-15 years old versus being 16-17 years old. The participants also took longer to assess their level of attraction to the 'younger' girls and compared to the 'older' girls. This finding replicated a previous study conducted into this subject in the United Kingdom, despite the legal age of consent being 14 in Bulgaria, and none of the photos of the girls were presented as being below the age of consent.

The researchers suggested that these types of responses by the participants represented a desire by them to conform to social norms that strongly prohibit older men being attracted to adolescent girls; by downplaying their level of sexual attraction to the younger adolescent girls presented.

They also suggested that measuring the sexual responses of convicted child molesters might therefore not be a reliable method of discerning their level of actual sexual interest in underage targets; and that these individuals may simply be less overtly responsive to social norms then the typical population.

Quotes:

  • In all the three samples, apparently younger girls were rated as less attractive than older girls despite being the same photographs. We hypothesize that this difference reflects some self-censoring mechanism involved in making such judgments.
  • One cognitive factor that may be particularly important in this instance may be internalized societal norms stipulating any sexual attraction to young girls as ‘‘inappropriate.’’ This may be particularly relevant if the girls are thought to be under the age of legal sexual relations.
  • Importantly, this replication occurred despite the age of consent in Bulgaria being 2 years younger than that of the UK. Key findings were that apparently younger girls were rated as less attractive than (the same) apparently older girls, who in turn were considered less attractive than women.
  • That these findings were found in populations with differing ages of sexual consent suggests that they are general, perhaps ethically driven norms,rather than norms based on legal controls on behavior.

References:

  • Bennett P, Lowe R, Petrova H. 2015. Heterosexual Men’s Ratings of Sexual Attractiveness of Adolescent Girls: A Cross-Cultural Analysis. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44(8): 2201–2206. [Abstract]
  • O’Donnell M, Lowe RP, Brotherton H, Bennett P. 2014. Heterosexual men’s ratings of sexual attractiveness of adolescent girls: Effects of labeling the target as under or over the age of sexual consent. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 43: 267–271. [Abstract]

Men sexually prefer young women throughout life, while women prefer age-matched men[edit | edit source]


Data from OK Cupid was analyzed by a founder of OK Cupid to evaluate how men's and women's age preferences do or don't change over time. They found that throughout men's lives, men most prefer women who are 20-23. 20 was the lowest data point allowed in this study, and thus it is possible men's ideal preference may in fact be even lower.

By contrast, women prefer men who are within a few years of their own age, and as they get older, they prefer men who more closely match their age. Only after 31 do they prefer men who are younger, and then only by a few years.

Currently, it has become commonplace in online communities for people to shame an older man for pursuing women in the age range he would find most attractive. This is deemed "creepy" and many people claim it makes him a "pervert". However, we can see from a male biological perspective it is totally natural. This can be understood as a further manifestation of an overly feminist society which deems anything women want as valid and beyond reproach, and anything men want differently as "toxic".

Data:

A man/woman's age vs. the age of partners who look best to him/her

References:

  • Rudder C. 2015. Men's Favorite Ages Are 20, 21, 22, and 23: A Data Dive by the Co-Founder of OKCupid. Jezebel. [News]

Women age facially at 2-3 times the rate of men [edit | edit source]


It is a common expression that comparatively speaking, "men age like wine, women age like milk." Scientifically, it has been shown that this phrase may in fact have validity, as women develop facial signs of aging at 2-3 times the rate that men do.

Facial analysis of aging patterns indicated women experience their greatest rate of aging from 50-60 when their faces age three times as quickly as men. During the rest of their lives, women age twice as quickly as men.

Quotes:

  • The female rate of facial aging is higher than the male rate.
  • Before age 50 and also after age 60, female faces age—on average—about twice as fast as male faces; between 50 and 60 years, this sex difference in aging rate is even more pronounced (up to three times faster).
  • Aging was generally associated with a flatter face, sagged soft tissue (“broken” jawline), deeper nasolabial folds, smaller visible areas of the eyes, thinner lips, and longer nose and ears.

References:

  • Windhager S, Mitteroecker P, Rupić I, Lauc T, Polašek O, Schaefer K. 2019. Facial aging trajectories: A common shape pattern in male and female faces is disrupted after menopause. Am J Phys Anthropol, 169:678–688. [FullText]

Men's desirability to women online peaks at 50, while women's peaks at 18 and then falls rapidly[edit | edit source]


Bruch and Newman (2018) analyzed thousands of messages exchanged on a "popular, free online-dating service" between more than 186,000 straight men and women. They looked only at four metro areas—New York, Boston, Chicago, and Seattle—and only at messages from January 2014.

By analyzing patterns of messaging, they were able to establish the overall desirability of men and women in online dating based on their ages. They found that women's desirability was highest at the youngest age permitted on the dating site, i.e. 18 years old, and that it rapidly dropped as women aged. By contrast male desirability was relatively flat over time with a gentle peak by around age 50.

Observing the trend of desirability for women, it can be seen that the shape shows no signs of "leveling off" as it approaches 18. In a scenario where even younger women were allowed to participate, it seems likely the desirability would continue to rise by simple extrapolation of the existing curve trajectory.

This research also confirmed as have most studies that white men are consistently most desirable to women. Furthermore, they found that women had higher success rates when trying to "date up" towards more desirable men (i.e exert hypergamy) than men did with attempting to "date up" with women.

Figures:

Desirability of men and women online by age

Quotes:

  • The average woman’s desirability drops from the time she is 18 until she is 60.
  • For men, desirability peaks around 50 and then declines.

References:

  • Bruch EE, Newman MEJ. 2018. Aspirational pursuit of mates in online dating markets. Science Advances, 4(8). [FullText] [Abstract]
  • Meyer R. 2018. Dude, She’s (Exactly 25 Percent) Out of Your League. The Atlantic. [News]

Younger female prostitutes are in higher demand and charge more, across numerous cultures[edit | edit source]


Dunn (2018) conducted a study wherein data was collected of advertising profiles posted by female escorts on the website https://adultwork.com. The data consisted of a cross-cultural sample, with data collected from the following countries/regions: Australia, The United States, The United Kingdom, Ireland and "Eastern Europe" (the particular countries were not specified.)

Dunn analyzed the data and controlled for such potential confounds as the lower rates offered by Eastern European escorts and the differential charged for 'in-calls' (visiting the escorts residence) vs out-calls (the escort traveling to the clients residence). A direct analysis of the prices between the countries sampled was precluded by the different currencies utilized by said countries.

Results showed that cross-culturally the youngest escorts (in their early to mid twenties) charged higher rates compared to somewhat older (30s) escorts and the lowest rates were provided by escorts in their 40s to 50s. Interestingly, however, clients did not show a preference for the youngest age (20) compared to the second youngest age (25) in the United Kingdom (the only country whose data allowed such an analysis). This lack of difference was suggested to possibly be due to men displaying a preference for signs of fertility (waist to hip ratio of 0.7) over youth alone in a short term mating context.

Results were supportive of previous research that indicates younger women possess a higher mate value, whereas older women (in this case older escorts) possess lower mate value which translates to reduced charges for sex.

Quotes:

  • Men have universally expressed attraction to younger women.
  • Prostitution has been recorded across all cultures and historical epochs.
  • With the exception of Irish escorts advertising for an outcall service, differences were found in all countries sampled with younger escorts charging significantly higher fees than older escorts.

References:

  • Dunn, MJ. 2018. Younger Escorts Advertise Higher Charges Online than Older Escorts for Sexual Services Cross-Culturally. Evolutionary Psychological Science, 4(3): 331-339. [Abstract]

Men rate the faces of adolescent girls as more attractive and feminine than adult women[edit | edit source]


Anthropology and Sociology researchers Röder et al. (2013) from the University of Göttingen noted that prior research on male ratings of female attractiveness and femininity has largely restricted itself to only considering women of young adult age (i.e., college-aged). However, they note that the capability for a female to become pregnant or bear children is not limited to this age range, but commences at menarche (first period), which is currently roughly at a mean age of 12.43 (Chumlea et al. 2003). They sought to investigate whether male ratings of female attractiveness and femininity would show a response to this age group and how it would compare to male responses to adult and menopausal women.

Standardized pictures were taken of 50 girls aged 11-15 (average 13.76), 42 adult women aged 19-30 (average 23.48), and 29 menopausal women aged 50-65 (average 56.83). 150 men who were 18-40 years old (average 23.68) then each rated 24 of these photos picked at random based on attractiveness and femininity.

It was found that the youngest girls aged 11-15 were rated the highest on both attractiveness and femininity by the men, followed by the adult women, and lastly the menopausal women. The youngest girls had greater rated facial attractiveness than the adult women with 94% statistical certainty (p = 0.06) and the menopausal women with >99.9% statistical certainty (p < 0.001). The youngest girls had greater rated femininity than the adult women with >95% statistical certainty (p < 0.05) and the menopausal women with >99.9% statistical certainty (p < 0.001).

They conclude that youth is one of the primary factors men consider in evaluating female attractiveness and femininity. Although society tells men there is something wrong with a man finding a female under the age of 18 attractive, when men compare these younger females to adult women, they find the youngest girls most attractive and feminine. The researchers also stated that it was likely the the more physically mature adolescent girls at the higher end of the age range they examined (11-15) that were seen as the most attractive, as their age was found to correlate with their rated attractiveness.

Figures:

Male ratings of female facial attractiveness and femininity by female age groups, showing men rated the youngest adolescent females as more attractive and feminine than adult and menopausal women.

Quotes:

  • The majority of research that investigated the relationship between women's attractiveness and fertility has done so in samples of young adult (i.e., college-aged) women. However, it is also clear that female fecundity is not limited to this life-stage but should rather be seen as a function of age (Pawlowski and Dunbar, 1999), beginning at menarche and ending at menopause. This raises the question of whether men's judgments of women's attractiveness are sensitive to these age-related changes in fertility.
  • Facial photographs, body odors, and voice recordings were collected from a total sample of 121 heterosexual women from three different age groups: young girls (n = 50; age range = 11–15 years, M = 13.76 years, SD = 1.44 years), adult women (n = 42; age range = 19–30 years, M = 23.48 years, SD = 2.47 years) and circum-menopausal women (n = 29; age range = 50–65 years, M = 56.83 years, SD = 5.17 years). Participants were recruited from the local population of Göttingen (Germany) and all reported to be native German speakers.
  • A panel of 150 men (age range = 18–40 years, M = 23.68 years, SD = 3.25 years) rated 24 facial photographs that were randomly selected out of the total sample, 12 of them on attractiveness and another 12 on femininity. Attractiveness and femininity were rated in separate blocks of trials and trial order was fully randomized.
  • For facial attractiveness, young girls received the highest attractiveness ratings (M = 2.12, SD = 0.43), followed by that of adult women (M = 1.91, SD = 0.44), and circum-menopausal women (M = 1.43, SD = 0.34).
  • Faces of young girls received higher femininity ratings than those of adult women and circum-menopausal women (young girls: M = 3.16, SD = 0.56; adult women: M = 2.83 SD = 0.57; circum-menopausal women: M = 2.67, SD = 0.47).
  • Indeed, among the group of young girls, age was positively correlated with both facial and vocal attractiveness, suggesting more mature girls may be judged as more attractive.
  • Health and youth are considered to be the predominant qualities men employ in their assessment of female attractiveness and femininity because of their link with fertility and reproductive value (Grammer et al., 2003; Wood, 1989).
  • Our data suggest a general preference for female youth.

References:

  • Röder S, Fink B, Jones BC. 2013. Facial, Olfactory, and Vocal Cues to Female Reproductive Value. Evolutionary Psychology, 11(2): 392-404. [Abstract] [FullText]
  • Chumlea WC, Schubert CM, Roche AF, Kulin HE, Lee PA, Himes JH, Sun SS. 2003. Age at menarche and racial comparisons in US girls. Pediatrics, 111(1):110-3. [Abstract]

Hypergamy[edit | edit source]

Women rate 80% of men as "below average", while men rate women on a bell curve[edit | edit source]


Dating site OK Cupid released data through their blog about the relative distribution of men's vs. women's ratings of the opposite gender. They found that while men rated women on a very even bell curve distribution, women rated 80% of men as below average (<5/10). This data was further analyzed for the book Dataclysm by OK Cupid founder Christian Rudder, providing a more detailed graphing of the original data, demonstrated below, calibrated to a 0-10/10 rating scale.

Data:

Women rate 80% of men below medium, while men rate women on a more even bell curve distribution (Dataclysm, 2014)

Quotes:

  • Women rate an incredible 80% of guys as worse-looking than medium. Very harsh.

References:

The top 10% of men get 58% of women's likes in online dating[edit | edit source]


Online dating app Hinge works similarly to Tinder, but was designed with the intent of creating a more equitable and better functioning dating market. However, even on Hinge, evidence for female hypergamy is overwhelming. The distribution of likes women provide is heavily skewed such that 16.4% of their likes go to the top 1% of men, 41.1% of their likes go to the top 5% of men, 58% of their likes go to the top 10%, and 95.7% of their likes go to the top 50%. This means that only 4.3% of their likes go to the entire bottom 50% of men. Thus a top 1% man will receive 190x times more likes as a man who is in the bottom 50%.

This suggests that women easily reach a very strong consensus on which men are attractive, which detracts from the notion that "beauty is subjective." It also suggests that if you are a below average man, the odds of receiving any significant number of likes at all or success is quite small.

The inequity in the dating market for each gender was further analyzed, and it was found that if the dating markets were considered like financial markets, the dating market for women would resemble Western Europe, while for men, it would resemble South Africa with its "kleptocracy, apartheid, perpetual civil war."

Figures:

Graphed distribution of women's likes of men on Hinge

Quotes:

  • The biggest problem men face on dating apps - the Brad Pitts of the world take the lion’s share of the likes from an already like-deficient sex.
  • Every nation in the world has a currency, but that currency is not equally distributed amongst the citizens of every country. These economic inequalities are described using what is called the Gini index. In our context, the closer the Gini index is to 0, the more equally likes are distributed across all of our users; a higher Gini index rating means more likes are being concentrated into fewer recipients.
  • It turns out that, as it pertains to incoming likes, straight females on Hinge show a Gini index of 0.376, and for straight males it’s 0.542. On a list of 149 countries’ Gini indices provided by the CIA World Factbook, this would place the female dating economy as 75th most unequal (average — think Western Europe) and the male dating economy as the 8th most unequal (kleptocracy, apartheid, perpetual civil war — think South Africa).

References:

Men like 61.9% of female profiles, women like only 4.5% of male profiles[edit | edit source]


Researchers conducted a field experiment on Tinder using 24 fictitious Tinder profiles in multiple cities in Flanders, the Northern, Dutch speaking region of Belgium. These profiles only differed on education level. They then collected and analyzed data on 3,600 profile evaluations to evaluate the extent to which education played a role in matching or dating on the app.

To ensure the pictures they used for the profiles were similar in attractiveness, they scored 32 (16 male, 16 female) pictures on Amazon Mechanical Turk and selected 8 pictures (4 male, 4 female) that 493 workers on MTurk judged to be similar in level of attractiveness. Then to ensure an even more fair evaluation, they attached to each picture three different education levels in three different cities.

They swiped to like 150 times for each profile, then collected data. Overall, men liked or superliked 61.9% of their female profiles. On the other hand, women only liked 4.5% of the male profiles. Men started a conversation with the female profiles 42.3% of the time, while women only initiated conversations 6.2% with the male profiles.

They found "evidence for hypergamy" which they report matched findings from other online dating studies. This hypergamy was exclusively mediated through women's preference for highly educated men. They also found that contrary to the popular notion that men are "intimidated" by highly educated women, a woman's education level did not significantly change a man's swiping behavior. There was no tendency overall for Tinder users to follow educationally assortative mating patterns, as similarly educated people were not more likely to match. There was however a tendency for users of both sexes to like the profiles of users with lower educational levels then themselves less often, with this tendency being far more apparent among female users then male users (10.1% less likely for males vs 45.4% less likely for females.)

Quotes:

  • Women on Tinder are more selective than men on Tinder.
  • Male subjects (super)liked [liked or superliked] 61.9% of the female evaluated profiles, while female subjects (super)liked [liked or superliked] only 4.5% of the male evaluated profiles.
  • Male subjects started a conversation with the female evaluated profiles much more often (42.3%) than the other way around (6.2%).
  • Women on Tinder have a preference for highly educated men.
  • We find evidence for a preference for hypergamy ... This effect is driven by the female subjects, who like higher educated profiles 92.2% more often, whereas this effect is not significant for the male subjects.
  • Male evaluated profiles with a Ma+ degree [5 year degree] secure at least twice as many matches compared with their counterparts which were lower educated.
  • Women are more reluctant than men to contact lower-educated potential partners.
  • Men on Tinder are not intimidated by highly educated women.
  • On Tinder, preferences for educational assortative mating are absent.
  • Women have a greater parental investment and are therefore looking for the most high-quality partner possible, in order to obtain high-quality offspring, therefore being more selective. Conversely, men have a smaller parental investment and are looking to maximize the quantity of offspring, resulting in them being less selective.

References:

The top 5-20% of men (ie. "Chads") are now having more sex than ever before[edit | edit source]


Data was drawn to assess trends in sexual behavior from the 2002 and 2011–2013 National Survey of Family Growth, a US household survey focusing on sexual and reproductive health.

Researchers found that compared to 2002, men overall had the same number of partners in 2013. However, the top 20% of men had a 25% increase in sexual partners. The top 5% of men had an even more dramatic 38% increase in the number of sexual partners.

Thus while the amount of male sex that was had was unchanged, more of the sex was consolidated into extra sex for the top 5-20% of men (ie. "Chads"). Thus it is clear that the most attractive men are truly having more sex than ever before.

Quotes:

  • Although we found no change in median numbers of sex partners [for men], we found significant increases in the numbers of sex partners reported by the top 5% and 20%.
  • We found an overall statistically significant increase in reported lifetime opposite-sex sex partners overall for men in the top 20% from 12 in 2002 to 15 in 2011–2013 (95% CIs, 11–14 and 15–15, respectively).
  • Similarly, there was a statistically significant overall increase in reported lifetime partners for men in the top 5% from 38 in 2002 to 50 in 2011–2013 (95% CIs, 30–40 and 50–50, respectively).

References:

  • Harper CR, Dittus PJ, Leichliter JS, Aral, SO. 2017. Changes in the Distribution of Sex Partners in the United States: 2002 to 2011–2013. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 44(2): 96–100. [FullText]

Average women receive 15 times as many matches as average men on Tinder[edit | edit source]


To understand gender differences in Tinder outcomes, researchers created 14 curated profiles for men and women designed to reflect the characteristics of "average" users. Locations were set to London and New York. They used these profiles to monitor the way others react to them, specifically in terms of matches and subsequent messaging.

They then liked all profiles possible within a 100 mile radius for all profile accounts. Through the interactions of these 14 profiles, they thereby collected data on almost half a million users.

They found the male profiles had only a 0.67% match rate, while the female profiles had a 10.3% match rate. Thus in this study there were 15.4x as many matches for female profiles as the male. It should be noted that the profiles they used only had a single photo, as they were using copyright-free stock images.

In a second study, they used photos of a real woman and man to compare the effects of having one vs. three photos. They found using three photos increased both genders' match rates considerably. In particular the male profile went from a 0.27% match rate to 1.96% match rate, and the female profile went from an 18% match rate to a 23% match rate. Without seeing these pictures, however, and no control process in their methodology to assess or match attractiveness of the photos, it is difficult to assess the degree to which attractiveness of the photos mediated this process. However, it would certainly imply the possibility that the profiles in the first experiment might have performed better had they incorporated more photos.

Data:

Profile Photo Match Rate
Stock Male 1
Tinder-stock-male-1.jpg
0.55%
Stock Male 2
Tinder-stock-male-2.jpg
0.69%
Stock Male 3
Tinder-stock-male-3.jpg
0.78%
Stock Female 1
Tinder-stock-female-1.jpg
10.3%
Stock Female 2
Tinder-stock-female-2.jpg
10.5%
Stock Female 3
Tinder-stock-female-3.jpg
10.2%
MALE AVG 0.67%
FEMALE AVG 10.3%

Quotes:

  • Women attain large numbers of matches rapidly, whilst men only slowly accumulate matches.
  • Through data on almost half a million users, we show that the two genders exhibit quite different matching and messaging trends.
  • Women tend to be highly selective in whom they like, leading to a starvation of matches for men. Men, on the other hand, are more accommodating in their practices, hitting like for a far larger proportion of women. This mirrors many sociological observations about mating, although Tinder seems to enact quite extreme examples of this.
  • Our findings suggest a "feedback loop", whereby men are driven to be less selective in the hope of attaining a match, whilst women are increasingly driven to be more selective, safe in the knowledge that any profiles they like will probably result in a match.

Reference:

  • Tyson G, Perta VC, Haddadi H, Seto MC. 2016. A First Look at User Activity on Tinder. ASONAM '16 Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining, 461-466. [Abstract] [FullText]

Tinder manipulates male profile visibility to promote hypergamy & maximize revenues from men[edit | edit source]


Journalists from the French newspaper Le Monde performed a dating experiment on Tinder using an average looking man and woman, finding that the average match rate for women was 50% and for men only 2%. Thus women in this experiment had a 25x greater match rate than men.

This provides evidence for women generally being far more sexually selective than men, and shows that most men are never given consideration. However, they also raise the important point that Tinder manipulates male profile visibility such that the only ways a man's profile is shown to women at all is if many other women also like that man (i.e. proving he is very attractive), or the man is paying for Boosts or other monetized solutions. They even go so far as to suggest Tinder is intentionally targeting men who can most easily pay for these services to maximize their frustration and thus revenue potential from them.

Quotes:

  • On the world's number one dating app, the average match rate in the quest for a heterosexual relationship is 50% for a woman, and that of a man of... 2%.
  • "Tinder is working with video game specialists to learn how to activate the frustration mechanisms in men's brains. When they have identified a profile that can pay - a certain level of income, a certain level of education, etc. - they put it in a category where its profile appears less. Once he buys the option, his profile is, depending on his level of attractiveness, either shown normally or shown much more," explains Jean Meyer, CEO of the Once app, which Match - Tinder's parent company - tried to swallow.
  • "Yes, that's how it works!" confirms a former employee of a dating app who wishes to remain anonymous to the two investigators. There are more men on the app, and the majority of them are simply not shown to users.

Reference:

Women are more attracted to men who are already in relationships than single men[edit | edit source]


A study by Parker & Burkley (2009) where female and male participants (n=184) who were single or in a relationship viewed information about an opposite-sex other and indicated their interest in pursuing this target. Half of the participants were told that the target was single and half read that the target was currently in a relationship.

The participants were lead into a cubicle and shown a photograph and descriptive information about a ('moderately attractive') opposite sex target, the studies participants being under the false impression that they were taking part in a study on the effects of similarity on sexual attraction. The participants were then asked to report their interest in pursuing a romantic connection with the opposite sex targets presented to them, and were then asked evaluate the targets level of physical attractiveness.

It was found that while the female participants didn't rate the 'attached' male targets as any more attractive, they rated then as significantly more desirable for a romantic relationship. This effect was not found for female participants already in a romantic relationship, and no significant effect was found on the men's evaluations of attached female targets.

Therefore there is evidence that mate choice copying applies to humans as well as being a widely observed phenomenon throughout the animal world.

Thus the Matthew Principle ("For whosoever hath, to him shall be given, and he shall have more abundance. But whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken away even that which he hath" Matthew 13.12 KJ21) can clearly be said to apply to the realm of human sexual relationships.

Quotes:

  • 90% of single women indicated interest in an already attached male vs 59% who indicated interest in the same male who was stated to be single.
  • There was no significant effect for men viewing pictures of women.
  • Single women in this study were significantly more interested in the target when he was attached. This may be because an attached man has demonstrated his ability to commit and in some ways his qualities have already been ‘‘pre-screened” by an-other woman.

References:

  • Parker J, Burkley M. 2009. Who’s chasing whom? The impact of gender and relationship status on mate poaching. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45(4): 1016-1019. [Abstract]

Women are prone to instability when they are more attractive than their male partner[edit | edit source]


Women reported a tendency towards dating men who they perceived as more attractive than them. When their partners were less attractive than them, they reported more resistance to their partner's attempts to 'mate guard', i.e they displayed less commitment, more resistance to men's public displays of affection, more flirting with other men, seeing other men as appealing dating alternatives, and more frequent thoughts about breaking up.

Thus it seems apparent that relationship satisfaction is most probable for a woman when a man "dates down." "Dating up" on the other hand for a man will more likely create a situation of relationship instability with the woman initiating destabilizing behaviors.

Quotes:

  • Women (N = 692) in romantic relationships (average duration approximately two years) self-reported their own as well as their partners' physical attractiveness, revealing significant perceived matching in physical attractiveness, as well as a tendency to rate their partners as more attractive than themselves.
  • When women perceived themselves as more attractive than their mates, they reported less commitment, more flirting with other men, more appealing dating alternatives, and more frequent thoughts about breaking up.

References:

  • Fugère MA, Cousins AJ, MacLaren SA. 2015. (Mis)matching in physical attractiveness and women's resistance to mate guarding. Personality and Individual Differences, 87: 190-195. [Abstract]

Before 'enforced monogamy', 2-to-17x as many women as men successfully reproduced [edit | edit source]


A study by Karmin et al., (2015) which conducted an analysis of publicly available genetic data comparing the genetic diversity of the male Y chromosome to the female mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) found:

  • 8-4 thousand years ago, roughly around the time Agricultural Civilization began to emerge in the Fertile Crescent (modern Iraq), South Asia, East Asia (China), the Nile River Valley and later in Neolithic Europe, 17 times as many women successfully reproduced compared to men.
  • This disparity was stated to be chiefly related to an increasingly polygynous mating structure (harem society) that developed after the invention of agriculture leading to greater competition between men for mates as opposed to harsher natural selection being the main cause(i.e more men dying off young before reproducing) and that possibly greater levels of male immigration by conquest due to the easier transportation opportunities afforded by the invention of the wheel, domestication of the horse, camel etc. also contributed somewhat to this disparity.
  • The development of agriculture and the more centralized political systems this enabled thus led to greater variance in male fitness due to inheritance of resources and social status (hereditary systems of political and religious succession i.e chiefdoms, hereditary priesthood, early monarchies).
  • The authors stated "in particular, populations practicing strict monogamy tend to exhibit approximately equal ratios of male to female variance in reproductive success, while men in societies practicing serial monogamy or polygyny tend to have a higher variance in reproductive success than females, particularly in more sedentary populations."

References:

  • Karmin M, Saag L, Vicente M, Sayres MAW, Järve M, Talas UG, et al. 2015. A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture. Genome Research. 25: 459-466. [Abstract] [FullText]
  • Diep F. 2017. 8,000 Years Ago, 17 Women Reproduced for Every One Man. Pacific Standard. [News]
  • Wilder JA, Mobasher Z, Hammer MF. 2004. Genetic Evidence for Unequal Effective Population Sizes of Human Females and Males. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 21(11): 2047–2057. [FullText]

Women bitterly reject unattractive men after facing rejection themselves by an attractive man[edit | edit source]


Macdonald, Baratta & Tzalazidis (2015) conducted two identical studies to confirm their hypothesis that rejected individuals are likely to feel insulted and thus derogate unattractive partners in an attempt to ameliorate the loss of status they receive through being rejected.

A group of female Canadian university students (n=126 for the first study, n=166 for the second) were presented with two separate online dating profiles with identical biographic information.

The two profiles solely differed on the metric of third-party rated physical attractiveness (mean rating for the 'attractive profile'= 4.39; mean rating for the 'unattractive' profile= 1.79.) After viewing the two profiles, the participants were given either acceptance or rejection feedback from the two profiles, with the participants being under the impression that they were participating in a study of online dating behavior; in comparison to dating 'in real life'. The participants then evaluated the two profiles on their level of desirability as a potential romantic partner, their responsiveness and rating the partner's physical attractiveness.

It was found that as expected participants were likely to derogate the men who had been portrayed as rejecting them. More interestingly, it was discovered that participants that were rejected by the attractive man were likely to derogate and reject the unattractive man; even when he was depicted as being accepting towards them.

The researchers suggested that this revealed an attempt by the participants to lessen the social impact of rejection by a desirable mate, by derogating and thus asserting one's superiority towards a man seen as 'lesser' than oneself. The opposite situation was not found, rejection by the unattractive man had no effect on the women's acceptance towards the attractive man.

Perhaps this study helps explain one reason why many incels report being the recipient of callous and dismissive behavior by women they attempt to make romantic connections with. It could be that many of these women 'punch down' on unattractive men in an attempt to restore their damaged self-esteem and social status because of them having experiencing rejection by at the hands of an attractive man.

Quotes:

  • Across two studies, we demonstrated that although rejection provoked derogation of and distancing from the rejecter, rejection by an attractive man also led to derogation of and distancing from an unattractive man —even when that unattractive man offered acceptance.
  • However, consistent with our theoretical position, we did not find evidence that rejection by an unattractive man spurred derogation of an attractive man.
  • Furthermore, based on participants’ ratings, our attractive males may arguably be labeled as moderately attractive. Thus, it is unclear what effects would emerge if rejection came from a highly attractive individual.

References:

Cucks[edit | edit source]

Women name the wrong man as the "father" for between 0.8% and 30% of all childbirths [edit | edit source]


A review published in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health by Bellis et al. (2005) concluded that in cases where paternity was disputed, 26.9% of cases showed paternity discordance (PD, aka paternity fraud). In the general population where children were more randomly tested by blood or genetic markers to assess their paternity, the median rate of paternity fraud was 3.7%, with studies ranging from 0.8% to 30%.

The authors also remarked that those most at-risk of paternity fraud were men of low socio-economic status, and those most likely to commit it were young women in concurrent sexual relationships. The authors of this study noted that this was an increasing trend, at least in the United Kingdom.

It is important to note this rate of paternity fraud is per birth not per individual(s) involved. Thus the total risk of a man falling victim to paternity fraud with at least one of his offspring would increase proportionately with the number of children he has. It is also important to note that even the most modest estimates detailed below represent a potentially large source of societal discord, as such incidents often have far reaching consequences even beyond the individuals involved.

In response the high amounts of paternity fraud enacted by women, the French government has banned paternity tests, such that any man pursuing a paternity test without a court order may be punished by a year in prison and a fine of €15,000 (Article 226-28 of the Penal Code). The rationale for this law is reportedly that, "French psychologists suggest that fatherhood is determined by society not by biology." There are indications Germany may be following this same approach going forward.

Data:

Paternity Fraud (%) Location Sample Size Reference
3.7 UK 2578 Edwards, 1957
18.0 USA 67 Sussman and Schatkin, 1957
1.4 USA 1417 Schacht and Gershowitz, 1963
10.1 USA 523 Schacht and Gershowitz, 1963
2.7 USA 6960 Peritz and Rust, 1972
30.0 UK 200 Philipp, 1973
9.0 South America 132 Neel and Weiss, 1975
2.3 USA 2839 Ashton, 1980
7.0 France 300 Salmon et al, 1980
4.0 New Zealand 1983 Lathrop et al, 1983
2.9 Mexico 217 Penaloza, 1986
1.4 UK 521 Brock and Shrimpton, 1991
2.8 France 362 Le Roux et al, 1992
4.0 Canada 25 Poon et al, 1993
0.8 Switzerland 1607 Sasse et al, 1994
11.8 Mexico 396 Cerda-Flores et al, 1999
1.6 UK 744 Chataway et al, 1999
3.7 - - Median

Quotes:

  • For disputed paternity tests median levels of PD across 16 studies is 26.9%.
  • For studies based on populations chosen for reasons other than disputed paternity median PD is 3.7%.

References:

Women rapidly lose interest in sex once in a stable relationship or living with a man[edit | edit source]


Klusmann (2006) examined a set of data consisting of three different samples of individuals (n=573) 30, 45 and 60 years of age, which were drawn randomly from local resident registration offices in the cities of Hamburg and Leipzig, Germany. 776 interviews were conducted, with a response rate of 30%.

Their level of sexual motivation and desire were measured by their level of agreement with several statements i.e : "Which of the following behaviors and feelings are more characteristic of you, and which are more characteristic of your partner: 'Want(s) to have sex often' with answer categories (1) more characteristic of me, (2) more characteristic of my partner, (3) characteristic of both of us, (4) characteristic of neither of us."

It was found that male sexual desire remained constant, or even increased throughout the course of the relationship, while female sexual desire declined over time, but that male desire for 'tenderness' declined and female desire for 'tenderness' was generally constant.

However, when examining factors modifying the relation between sex, partnership duration, and sexual motivation, it was found that female sexual desire rapidly declined after cohabitation, while it only slightly declined when the female was living separate to the male partner. It was also found that female sexual desire declined less when the male partner had a higher level of education relative to hers.

The author stated that these results appear to support the assertion that differentiation of desire over the course of a relationship is explained by different evolutionary motivations between the sexes. Men have a motivation to maintain a high level of sexual desire to ensure regular copulations to guard against cuckoldry by potential rivals and maximize reproduction. Whereas, in women the primary motivator when it comes to relationships desire to create and maintain a pair-bond with the male, to ensure his continued investment in her and her offspring.

Quotes:

  • This study investigates changes in sexual motivation over the duration of a partnership in a population sample stratified by age. The results replicate and extend the findings of a previous study that was based on a sample of college students.
  • In the samples of 30- and 45-year-olds, male sexual motivation remains constant regardless of the duration of the partnership. Female sexual motivation matches male sexual motivation in the first years of the partnership and then steadily decreases.
  • Female sexual motivation does not slope downward when (1) the female is not living with her partner or (2) her partner's educational level exceeds her own. In the first instance, the partnership might be experienced as not being fully established, and in the second instance the male partner might be identified as a valuable mate choice.
  • Feelings of love do not stop female sexual motivation from declining, although the decline occurs at a higher level, closer to that of male sexual motivation.
  • The results seem more intelligible from an evolutionary perspective as reflections of evolved design for sexual motivation, fine-tuned to the different conditions governing the reproductive success of males and females. In this view male sexual motivation promotes a constant frequency of copulation in order to guard against cuckoldry. Female sexual motivation, in contrast, promotes copulation to solve the adaptive problem of procuring male resources by establishing and maintaining a pair bond.

References:

  • Klusmann D. 2006. Sperm competition and female procurement of male resources. Human Nature. 17(3): 283–300 [Abstract] [FullText]

The more women love their husbands, the less likely they are to initiate sex[edit | edit source]


Researchers interviewed 168 couples living in rural Pennsylvania who were in their first marriages about their activities and interactions with their partners within two months of when each couple was married and then annually over the course of 13-year study.

They found that the more men love their wives, the more likely they were to be affectionate and create an environment in which the couple does a variety of things together, be it leisure activities or household chores. The more husbands loved their wives, they more likely they were also to initiate sex.

By contrast, women showed affection by enacting fewer negative or antagonistic behaviors (e.g nagging less and being less annoying). Wives were found to actually be less likely to initiate sex the more they loved their husbands.

To summarize:

  • The more men loved their wives, the more they wanted to have sex with those wives.
  • The more women loved their husbands, the less they wanted to have sex with those husbands.
  • Men showed affection by initiating sex, sharing leisure activities, and doing housework with their wife.
  • Women showed affection by enacting fewer negative or antagonistic behaviors.

Perhaps this study best explains many MGTOWs frustration from their experiences with marriages. It seems this study would suggest sex to a woman is a goal-directed activity to establish a loving relationship, and once that loving relationship is strong, she feels little further need for it.

Quotes:

  • Wives expressed love by enacting fewer negative or antagonistic behaviors, husbands showed love by initiating sex, sharing leisure activities, and doing household work together with their wives.
  • While the more husbands loved their wives, they more likely they were to initiate sex, wives were actually less likely to make the first move the more they loved their husbands.

References:

Women initiate 69% of divorces[edit | edit source]


Based on a survey titled “How Couples Meet and Stay Together,” which collected data from 2,262 adults in heterosexual relationships, participants provided information about their relationship status between 2009 and 2015. Analysis of the data revealed that women initiated 69% of divorces, while men only initiated 31%.

By contrast, in cases where an unmarried man and woman cohabitated, each partner was equally likely to decide to break up. This difference suggests that the legal doctrine of marriage incentivizes women to initiate divorce more than men, as women are often rewarded while men are punished by divorce settlements. If this was not the case, one would expect a similar rate of gendered separation initiation for both cohabiting non-married couples and cohabiting married couples.

References:

Vegetarian men are less attractive, likable, and masculine to women than omnivorous men[edit | edit source]


Timeo, S., & Suitner, C. (2018) conducted a series of studies that concluded that:

  • Women perceived vegetarian men as 8% less attractive, compared to omnivorous men.
  • Women viewed vegetarian men as "less likable".
  • The greater negative perception of vegetarian men was mediated by women's perception of vegetarian men as "less masculine".
  • Gender role norms prescribing that men eat meat are actively maintained by both women and men and do in fact guide men’s food choices.

References:

  • Timeo, S., & Suitner, C. 2018. Eating meat makes you sexy: Conformity to dietary gender norms and attractiveness. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 19(3):418-429. [Abstract]

Half of women in relationships report maintaining a 'back-up' partner in their social circle [edit | edit source]


Online market research company OnePoll.com conducted a survey of 1,000 women in relationships for the U.K tabloid newspaper, The Daily Mail. The purpose of the survey was to determine how many of these female respondents in relationships had a 'Plan-B' (i.e possible alternative to their current partner.) They found:

  • 43% of women reported having a back-up partner.
  • 80% were in contact with the back-up partner.
  • 50% said their partners were aware of this potential replacement.
  • 25% said they had feelings as strong for their back-up partner as they do for their primary partner.
  • 15% said their feelings were stronger for the back-up then for their primary partner.

Quotes:

  • It also emerged the Plan B is likely to be an ‘old friend’ who has always had feelings for the woman in question. But other candidates are an ex-boyfriend or ex-husband, a colleague or someone who they have met at the gym.
  • For our research to establish that almost 50 per cent of women in relationships have a ‘Plan B’ is a worrying sign ... This could spark fear in men across the UK and be great news for women looking for that extra bit of love and care so that their attentions aren’t swayed.
  • Around half had a ‘never say never’ approach, while trouble may lie ahead for one in six who said they were ‘seriously considering’ rekindling their romance with the man in the shadows.

References:

Sluts[edit | edit source]

Women who have premarital sex partners have higher divorce rates[edit | edit source]


The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) is a large periodic survey run by the CDC to gather information on family life, marriage and divorce, pregnancy, infertility, use of contraception, and men’s and women’s health, most recently from 2011-2013. Analysis of outcomes from this most recent data show a considerably higher odds of divorce proportionate to the number of premarital sex partners a woman has before marriage. Even a woman having one premarital sex partner doubles the odds of divorce. A woman having two premarital sex partners gives 3.5 times the odds of divorce.

Trends also show overall that women are having more partners before marriage than they did in prior generations like the 1970s. While in the 1970s, 21% of women had 0 premarital partners and only 2% had more than 10 premarital partners, by the 2010s, only 5% had 0 premarital partners and 18% had more than 10 premarital partners.

Figures:

Hazard ratios indicating increased odds of divorce for women with various premarital partner counts, per decade of marriage compared to reference category of 0 partners (total abstinence before marriage). Controlled for family structure of origin, race, education and urbanicity, age at marriage, and church attendance.
The distribution of women's premarital sex partners, per decade of marriage cohorts. It seems "saving oneself for marriage" is no longer a common strategy among women.

References:

Promiscuous women are more incompetent, cold, and unstable, according to women[edit | edit source]


Vrangalova, Bukberg & Rieger (2013) conducted a study to examine the moderators of individuals negative views of promiscuous women. It is commonly maintained that there exists a sexual 'double standard' where men's promiscuous behavior is positively viewed by society, but promiscuous women are shunned, particularly by men. The researchers sought to confirm the hypothesis - originating in evolutionary psychology - that 'slut shaming' is actually a more salient feature of same-sex platonic relationships between females, owing to female intrasexual competition for desirable male mates.

A group of university students (N=758, 75% female) who were stated by the researchers to be generally 'not very religious' and 'politically liberal'; were asked to complete an anonymous survey pertaining to the personality traits they found desirable in a potential same-sex friend. They were asked to read two vignettes, one being portrayed as more promiscuous then the other. The participants own level of sexual permissiveness was measured using the sociosexual orientation survey, widely used as a self-report measure of sexual permissiveness, i.e measuring participants favorable attitudes towards casual sex, their libido, and promiscuous sexual behavior.

It was found that women viewed promiscuous women as less competent, warm and emotionally stable, regardless of their own level of permissiveness; they viewed them more negatively then the more chaste women, apart from viewing more permissive women as being more extroverted. While expressing a general aversion for promiscuous behavior in women, the men in the study didn't perceive the more permissive women as possessing more negative personality characteristics - indeed, they viewed more promiscuous women as being more competent and emotionally stable; however non-permissive men perceived them as less desirable friendship candidates.

This finding suggests that the sexual 'double standard' possibly originates from evolutionary motives; more promiscuous men are seen as inherently more successful and desirable (because they fulfill the general male strategy of 'spreading their seed'); but more promiscuous women are seen as unstable and undesirable, as being perceived as a 'slut' is generally not beneficial; and it is not seen by people as a difficult undertaking deserving of praise, like amassing a large number of partners is perceived as in men.

Because promiscuous women were viewed in a more negative fashion by other women regardless of those women's own permissive sexual beliefs and practices, it is likely that this negative perception originates in the view of promiscuous women as potential 'mate-poachers', and is a function of a female tendency to derogate possible female intersexual competitors.

Quotes:

  • As predicted, compared to the non permissive target, participants expressed greater need for mate guarding from permissive targets, preferred them less with respect to morality, were more likely to dislike their sexuality, and less likely to like their sexuality. Women and non permissive men also rated the permissive target lower on friendship desirability.
  • A double standard emerged for preferences regarding four specific personality dimensions, including competence, emotional stability, warmth, and dominance. Whereas women preferred the non-permissive target in all four dimensions, men showed preference for the permissive target in the first two, and no preference in the last two dimensions.
  • There was also no moderation of participant permissiveness in disliking of sexuality, and in preferences regarding competence, dominance, extraversion, and emotional stability.

References:

Women 'dehumanize' and act more aggressively towards promiscuous women[edit | edit source]


Arnocky et al. (2019) recruited (n=113) heterosexual female under-graduate students (mean age=19.61) to confirm several predictions they had made regarding the nature inter-sexual competition, grounded in evolutionary theories. The women completed a psychometric scale measuring levels of Intrasexual Competitiveness. The scale consists of 12 items, such as “I can’t stand it when I meet another woman who is more attractive than I am” and “When I go out, I can’t stand it when men pay more attention to a friend of mine than to me.” Participants reported their level of agreement to these statements on a 1-7 Likert scale.

The participants were asked to make a short (3 minute) video with various questions designed to display their personality traits and ideals and aspirations. They were told that this video would be sent to same sex partner at a nearby university, and vice versa for the partner's video. A research confederate was featured in two videos in the same manner, reading from the same script, with the difference being that in one video the confederate was dressed in a 'sexualized' manner (make-up, cleavage etc.) versus being conservatively dressed (long-sleeve jumper, no make-up, hair concealed.)

To control for any possible changes in behavior between the two conditions, a group of female raters were asked to rate the audio voice recordings from the two videos, and they were judged to be similar in traits rated such as likability, intelligence, extraversion, and attractiveness. Each participant was randomly assigned to receive either the sexualized video or the conventional video.

After watching the video the participants were asked to rate their perceptions of the targets personality as measured by their level of the 'big-five' personality traits. The researchers constructed a variable termed 'uniquely human personality traits', which was the average score across the four Openness and Conscientiousness items in the questionnaire, representing these two dimensions of the Big Five, which have been demonstrated in previous research to be judged as the most uniquely 'human' personality traits.

The participants were then told they would play an economic game with their partner, a task that required them to select among three response options to earn points that would be exchangeable for money at the end of the study. Participants could choose to 'steal' points from their partner to but these stolen points were not added to the participants tally, thus stealing points was spiteful and aggressive (as it resulted in an opportunity cost, the participants time would ideally have been better spent protecting their own points).

Results showed that the female participants 'dehumanized' the more sexualized woman, and this caused increased aggressive behavior towards her in the economic game. This was most pronounced among women with a high level of intrasexual competitiveness.

Quotes:

  • This suggests that mere exposure to a sexualized woman predicts intrasexual aggression and that it does so in part via reduced perceived humanness of the target.
  • This provides support for the sexual-economics hypothesis, in that women aggressively punish other women who present themselves as too sexually available as a function of intrasexual competition. An important aspect of women’s intrasexual competition may therefore entail the social regulation of women’s sexuality by other women.
  • This study provides some of the first empirical evidence in support of the hypothesis that women’s punishment of sexualized women is likely a function of intrasexual competition.

References:

Women write 45-61.3% of all 'misogynistic' tweets on Twitter about female promiscuity[edit | edit source]


A data analysis of Twitter in 2014 by the UK 'think tank' Demos demonstrated that women appear to write at least 45% of the "misogynistic" tweets on Twitter, containing words like "slut," "whore," and "rape," almost equal to the amount attributable to men.

A later analysis by Brandwatch in 2016, examining 64.8K gender related tweets, had the number even higher with female accounts producing 61.3% of tweets containing the slurs "slut" and "whore".

Gender was calculated by matching the first name in someone’s Twitter bio to a large database of names, which were then used to assign a gender.

Quotes:

  • Women are as almost as likely as men to use the terms ‘slut’ and ‘whore’ on Twitter. Not only are women using these words, they are directing them at each other, both casually and offensively; women are increasingly more inclined to engage in discourses using the same language that has been, and continues to be, used as derogatory against them. (Demos, 2014)
  • We took a look at the gender break down of people mentioning “slut” and “whore”. Perhaps surprisingly, women are tweeting them more than men at almost double the rate. (Brandwatch, 2016)
  • Twitter is basically the cafeteria in Mean Girls.

References:

Women with 5+ lifetime sexual partners have a >21.8% chance of carrying genital herpes[edit | edit source]


Rates of genital herpes rise in women in direct proportion to the number of their lifetime sexual partners.

Genital herpes causes recurrent outbreaks of painful blisters in the genitals. There is no known cure. Once contracted, it lasts for life. As herpes outbreaks can occur anywhere in the pubic region, condoms offer only minimal protection. Furthermore, many individuals may shed herpes virus even when they are not having an outbreak and thus may infect future unsuspecting partners at any time. There also exists evidence that suggests being infected with Herpes Simplex Virus may be associated with an up to 2.56-fold increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.


Data:

Lifetime Sex Partners Prevalence of Genital Herpes in US Women
1 5.4%
2-4 18.8%
5-9 21.8%
10+ 37.1%

References:

Women sexualize themselves online to attract high status mates[edit | edit source]


Blake et al. (2018) regressed the aggregated count of 'sexy selfies' posted onto social media websites (Twitter and Instagram) in a city or county in the U.S onto five variables reflecting inequality between men and women in health, education, and the labor market (using the Gender Inequality Index Developed by the U.N) and then onto one variable measuring income inequality, the Gini coefficient.

The researchers found no significant association with gender inequality and the number of 'sexy selfies' posted in a particular region. They instead found a strong relationship between income inequality as measured by the Gini coefficient and the prevalence of 'sexy selfies' on social media. It was also found that women spend more money on self-beautification (beauty salons) and expensive clothes as measured by the greater profits of retailers and providers of these services in areas of high income inequality.

The researchers suggested that, in opposition to feminist theories regarding women's sexualization being a function of patriarchal norms being imposed on them by men, it is instead women that choose to sexualize themselves to compete with each other, in their competition for high-status mates in areas with high income inequality and permissive sexual attitudes.

Quotes:

  • Our findings raise the possibility that sexualization and appearance enhancement are markers of female competition, occurring in environments in which incomes are unequal and status competition is highly salient.
  • We did not find any association between sexualization or physical appearance enhancement and the operational sex ratio, suggesting that the relative abundance or scarcity of mates is not associated with these outcomes.
  • A recently accepted paper shows convergent evidence: Negative economic shocks narrow the pool of suitable men, thus intensifying mating competition among women by increasing the share of unwed women and mothers.

References:

Women are half as likely as men to be very satisfied by a one night stand[edit | edit source]


Researchers from the company "Dr Ed" (now ZavaMed) surveyed 500 Americans and 500 Europeans to gauge their experiences with short-term sexual encounters. 66% of respondents admitted to having had a one night stand in the past. Only 14% of them were planned. On average, women in Europe and America have had five one night stands.

The study found that 35% of men reported feeling "very satisfied" after having a one night stand compared to only 17% of women, and thus women are half as likely as men to find one night stands very satisfying.

Piemonte et al. (2019) performed a study to explain this gender difference, and found that the difference could be best explained by the fact that men are far more likely to orgasm during one night stands than women, and people who orgasm during casual sex are more likely to report the experience as positive.

Quotes:

  • Orgasm mediates the gender difference in how positively participants respond to casual sex. Specifically, men are more likely to orgasm during casual sex, and people who orgasm during casual sex are more likely to experience positive reactions afterwards. (Piemonte et al., 2019)

References:

Women feel more "entitlement" to men's bodies for sexual pleasure than vice versa[edit | edit source]


Researchers in Australia surveyed differences between young men and women (aged 17 to 25 years) on a university campus to assess their sense of entitlement to sexual partner pleasure over 1-year with two waves of data collection.

They found that young women had significantly more entitlement to sexual partner pleasure than men did, and entitlement increased over time and with more sexual experience. The researchers review prior studies confirming these findings to be valid. They note that other research has also confirmed women place a greater emphasis than men on the role of having a sexual partner to meet their sexual desires and pleasure.

Many criticisms about incels in the media have centered around the notion that men feel too "entitled" to sex and female bodies for sexual pleasure. However, scientific research has shown women, not men, feel the greatest amount of entitlement to sexual pleasure from the opposite gender's bodies. Thus the idea that there is a problem because men are "too entitled" to women's bodies is not founded in the scientific literature. The the contrary, women clearly feel more "entitled" to men's bodies for sexual pleasure than vice versa.

Data:

Time Young Men Young Women
Entitlement to partner pleasure T1 3.79 3.94
T2 3.86 4.06

Quotes:

  • Young women reported more sense of entitlement to sexual partner pleasure than young men, and the average level of entitlement increased from T1 to T2.
  • Inexperienced participants reported less entitlement when compared to the three groups that reported a history of coitus.
  • This finding compliments the broader research on gender difference in sexual development and behavior, which indicates young women place more emphasis than young men on the role of a sexual partner to meet their sexual desires and pleasure.
  • Young women reported more sense of entitlement than young men, and older participants reported more entitlement relative to younger participants.

References:

Women's self reported sex partner count dramatically increases when hooked up to a polygraph[edit | edit source]


Alexander & Fisher (2003) conducted a study to examine the effects of social norms on women's self-reports of their number of sexual partners. The researchers utilized a 'bogus pipeline' methodology; wherein participants were wired to a replica polygraph, with the participants being under the impression that the replica was functional and could detect the honesty of their responses to the researchers questions.

The studies participants (n=201; n=96 men and n=105 women) were asked to complete a survey gauging their level of sociosexuality (i.e how permissive or not their sexual attitudes were) and assigned to one of three conditions: anonymous response to the survey, bogus pipeline to control (filler questions), bogus pipeline answering the questions pertaining to their number of sexual partners and the 'exposure threat' condition (i.e the participants were under the impression that the researcher could read the responses to the questions.)

It was found that women significantly underplayed their number of sexual partners when they were threatened with 'exposure' by the researchers (mean number of partners 2.6) versus the anonymous response (mean number of partners 3.4) and that their self-reported partner count was highest under the bogus pipeline condition; where they were wired to the replica polygraph (mean number of partners 4.4.) Thus the women's self reported number of sexual partners was almost halved under the exposure threat condition vs the fake polygraph condition.

Males number of self-reported sexual partners remained reasonably stable under all conditions; with the mean number of partners reported by the men being 4.0 under the bogus pipeline condition. It was also found that women had a slightly lower earlier mean age of first intercourse (16.3 years versus men's 16.5) under the bogus pipeline condition, with women reporting a later age under the exposure threat condition.

Ergo, it was also found by the researchers that the women had a higher mean partner count then the men under the bogus pipeline condition, contradicting the general trend of women self-reporting significantly less sexual partners then roughly equivalent aged men.

Thus, it was demonstrated by the researchers that women generally deflate their self-reported number of partners (i.e their 'n count') and that this tendency is strongest when they are threatened with social shame or peer exposure for reporting their true number of sexual partners.

Quotes:

  • Sex differences were greatest in the exposure threat condition, which encouraged gender role accommodation, and were smallest in the bogus pipeline condition, which discouraged stereotypical responses and encouraged honest responding instead.
  • Surprisingly, women reported an earlier age than men in the anonymous condition.
  • Because men do not face the same negative consequences for expressing their sexuality as do women, they may not experience the need to inhibit these responses to the same degree.

References:

Women who have tattoos or piercings or wear chokers are more promiscuous[edit | edit source]


A study by Skegg et. al (2007), conducted on members of a birth-cohort (n=966) that took part in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, were queried in regards to whether or not they had body piercings and their sexual behaviors(sexual behavior questions were administered privately via computer).

They found that women with piercings were more likely to report having had, during the previous year, five or more heterosexual partners (odds ratio 5.8), and they also had a much higher chance of reporting having engaged in sexual activity with a same-sex partner - involving genital contact (OR, 10.3), compared to women without piercings. The associations between men's piercings in the study and sexual behavior were found to be not statistically significant.

Nowosielski et al. (2012), conducted a study on (n=120) young adults, aged 20-35. The group was divided into three subgroups: controls, adults with tattoos and adults with piercings.

It was found that adults with piercings had their first intercourse earlier and were more sexually active. The number of sexual partners was the highest in the group of subjects with tattoos, however it is also important to note that adults with tattoos rated themselves as more attractive, on average, then controls without them and those with piercings. This was not broken down by gender of the participants by the authors.

Koch et. al (2005), discovered that among a sample of college students (n=450), women who had tattoos were more likely to be sexually active then women without them (94.6% of tattooed women were sexually active vs 64.1% of non-tattooed women). The women with tattoos mean age of sexual debut was found to be lower by 5 months, then women without tattoos. Although, the authors reported that this difference wasn't considered statistically significant.

Further, Al-Shawaf and Williquette (2019), conducted three studies regarding women's intentions relating to their use of 'choker' necklaces. The first study (n=102) demonstrated that women's interest in wearing chokers, and how frequently they used chokers, was predicted by the women's sociosexuality, i.e. their general tendency to pursue a short-term mating strategy. Study 2 (n=104), and Study 3 (n=100), demonstrated that both female and male observers utilized women's choker usage as a reliable cue to their short-term mating orientation.

Quotes:

  • Women with piercings were also more likely to report having had, during the previous year, five or more heterosexual partners (odds ratio, 5.8) or any same-sex partner involving genital contact (odds ratio, 10.3). The associations with sexual behavior in men were weaker and not statistically significant. (Skegg, K., et. al, 2006.)
  • The number of sexual partners was the highest in the group of subjects with tattoos. (Nowosielski, K., et al. 2012.)
  • 94.6% of tattooed women had been sexually active compared to 68.1% of the nontattooed women. (Koch, J.R., et al. ,2005.)
  • These studies find clear support for the hypothesis that wearing chokers is a function of short-term mating orientation and no evidence for the other six hypotheses. These findings suggest two key conclusions: a) choker necklaces appear be valid cues of sociosexual orientation and b) both male and female observers use them as such. (Al-Shawaf, L. and Williquette, H. 2019.)

References:

MeToo[edit | edit source]

28% of young women now consider men even winking at them to be sexual harassment[edit | edit source]


YouGov performed a study survey on 2775 British adults to assess perspectives on what constitutes sexual harassment in the fallout from the #METOO movement. They found that young women have a far more draconian perspective on what constitutes sexual harassment compared to the previous generations of women. Young women were far more likely to view behavior that was only considered flirtatious in prior generations as now clearly sexual harassment.

In a society where even simple measures of flirtation are now penalized and outlawed, it becomes difficult to understand how young people are meant to find romance in natural, real life settings, as men and women have done successfully for centuries before. It seems evident that we are moving towards expectations for more puritanical and sanitized gender interactions than any previous generation in recent history. The fear of sexual advances and assumption that any sexual advance ought to be punished as "harassment" correlates with increasing loneliness, isolation, and celibacy for both genders.

As goalposts for what is or isn't "harassment" continue to shift, their movement will continue to create more room as time goes on for people to retroactively redesignate previously acceptable behaviors as "abuse."

Data:

Women Who Say Behavior is

"Usually or Always Harassment":

Women's Age
18-24 55+
Winking 28% 6%
Whistling 64% 15%
Touching Lower Back 48% 29%
Commenting on Attractiveness 28% 11%

References:

Women's definition of 'harassment' in online dating depends on the attractiveness of the man[edit | edit source]


A simulation of online dating was performed with fictional male profiles of varying attractiveness and social status. 128 female college students from a small northeastern public university participated to interact with these fictional male profiles. The male profiles then sent the female participants messages of increasing harassment. Researchers assessed how much harassment the women were willing to tolerate.

Results very clearly indicated that the strongest predictor of women's tolerance for "online harassment" was the attractiveness and social status of the "harasser" (ie. her interest in dating him).

Quotes:

  • Participants' self reported likelihood to date a bogus male dating candidate was predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment.
  • As a profile’s likelihood to date rating increased, so did the number of sexually harassing responses that participants were willing to tolerate.
  • We found that participants exposed to a physically attractive bogus candidate were willing to receive more sexually harassing responses from the bogus candidate, as were participants exposed to a high status bogus candidate.
  • Physically attractive individuals are perceived as less sexually harassing than unattractive individuals (Hendrix, Rueb, & Steel,1998).
  • Women also reported being least upset when they imagined being harassed by a man of high occupational status (e.g., premedical student, graduate student, successful rock star) and most upset when being harassed by a man of low occupational status (e.g., construction worker, garbage collector, cleaning men, gas station attendant) (Buss, 1994).

References:

The attractiveness of a male 'harasser' determines if the experience is enjoyable or traumatic[edit | edit source]


Fairchild (2010) conducted an online survey on perceptions of sexual harassment incidents of (N=1,277) relatively young (mean age 28.11) women. The women were given a series of questions from a modified version of the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire (SEQ) (e.g.,"Have you ever experienced unwanted sexual attention or interaction from a stranger?"; "Have you ever experienced catcalls, whistles, or stares from a stranger?") to measure if and/or how often they had been the recipient of such harassing behaviors.

The participants were then presented with a list of 17 contextual factors including (attractiveness, time of day, race, and location) and asked to select which of the features would make a experience of harassment by a stranger more frightening, which would make the experience more enjoyable, and which would make them more likely to react verbally. It was found that the primary factors that determined how enjoyable or traumatic women found the experience to be were:

  • Physical Attractiveness - More attractive men most significantly increased women's enjoyment of the 'harassment'.
  • Age - Similar or younger age in relation to the participant increased women's enjoyment of the 'harassment'.
  • Race - Different race of man made women more likely to rate it as traumatic.

Data:

Frequency (in percent) of contextual factors reported to increase fear, enjoyment, and verbal reactions to stranger harassment.

Factor Fear Enjoyment Verbal Reaction
Attractive Harasser 1.9 27.1 8.3
Unattractive Harasser 20.3 .2 3.4
Younger Harasser (20s-30s) 10.1 18.2 14.0
Older Harasser (40+) 32.6 1.6 3.7
Harasser Same Race 3.1 4.7 7.6
Harasser Different Race 15.1 1.1 1.6

Quotes:

  • Similar behaviors from an attractive and unattractive man are viewed differently with the attractive man receiving more leeway in the potentially harassing behavior.
  • Likewise, there is a contrast between younger harasser (18% responded more enjoyable) and older harasser (33% responded more frightening); this suggests that age may be an important contextual factor, particularly for determining if a situation is threatening enough to induce fear.
  • It can only be assumed that the women (46% of participants) feel that stranger harassment is an unpleasant experience that cannot be improved. However, it is equally likely that these women (or some of them) find the experience highly enjoyable and such enjoyment cannot be increased.

References:

Attractiveness determines perceptions of guilt or innocence in cases of sexual harassment[edit | edit source]


A simulated civil case was performed using college students (N = 324) as mock jurors. The case involved a plaintiff accusing a defendant of workplace sexual harassment. The physical attractiveness of the litigants was manipulated, and mock jurors were asked to decide whether the defendant was guilty.

They found that both the attractiveness of the plaintiff and defendant significantly affected outcomes of guilt or innocence. In particular:

  • Jurors were nearly twice as likely find in favor of the plaintiff when the plaintiff was attractive, and they were also more certain of the guilt of the defendant.
  • Female jurors were especially more likely to render a guilty verdict when the plaintiff was attractive and the defendant was unattractive.

Quotes:

  • Guilty verdicts were significantly more frequent when the plaintiff was attractive.
  • When the defendant was unattractive, female jurors were significantly more likely to render a guilty verdict when the plaintiff was attractive.
  • The present results suggest that the physical appearance of litigants can influence the judgment of jurors.

References:

Men & especially ugly men are considered inherently 'creepier' than women[edit | edit source]


McAndrew & Koehnke (2016) conducted an empirical study into the concept of 'creepiness'. Participants conducted a survey regarding their conceptualization of creepiness, and whether they thought 'creepy' people were more likely to be male or female.

Specifically, they were asked "Imagine a close friend of yours whose judgment you trust. Now imagine that this friend tells you that she or he just met someone for the first time and tells you that the person was 'creepy'." They were then requested to rate the likelihood of the 'creepy' individual exhibiting various type of behaviors e.g "the person never looked your friend in the eye" on a 5 point scale.

The participants then rated their view of the level of the creepiness of various occupations again on a 5 point scale.

The participants then listed any occupations they thought were particularly creepy, and finally expressed their level of agreement with various statements regarding the nature of creepy people, i.e "“I think that the person has a sexual interest in me”, and "I am uncomfortable because I cannot predict how he or she will behave.”

Finally they were asked as to whether they they thought creepy people realized whether they were creepy or not.

The researchers found:

  • 95.3% of the respondents thought that creepy people were much more likely to be males than females.
  • Using t-tests comparing the responses of the participants of either sex, it was found that women were far more likely to perceive a sexual threat from a 'creepy' individual then men.
  • Respondents noted that appearance was a significant factor of whether someone was 'creepy' or not. Reported appearance based factors included: The person was dressed oddly (.601), the person had unkempt hair (.609), the person had bags under his or her eyes (.599), the person had bulging eyes (.563) (Parentheses is how 'loaded on' or correlated these variables are with the composite general appearance based factor created by the researchers.)

Quotes:

  • Everything that we found in this study is consistent with the notion that the perception of creepiness is a response to the ambiguity of threat. Males are more physically threatening to people of both sexes than are females, and they were more likely to be perceived as creepy by males and females alike.
  • The prediction was supported by both of these items. Females were more likely than males to think that steering a conversation toward sex was characteristic of a creepy person, Means 4.23 (.930) vs. 3.90 (1.03), and they were also more likely to think that the creepy person had a sexual interest in them, mean (SD in parentheses) 3.51 (1.02) vs. 2.99 (1.15).
  • Most of our subjects believed that creepy people cannot change, and only a small minority of our subjects (8.6%) believed that creepy people are aware that they are creepy.

References:

Women permit 'creepy' behavior from attractive but not unattractive men[edit | edit source]


Gibson & Gore (2015) conducted a study regarding women's perception of men's 'norm violating' behavior being influenced by their level of physical attractiveness, based on the well-proven concept of the halo effect, regarding physical attractiveness. The participants (n=170) female college students, were given a sheet describing two different scenarios: The first scenario was a common innocuous behavior (a boy asking to borrow her pen in class) and the second 'norm violating' scenario involved a strange man approaching her on campus and asking to take 'modeling' photographs of her.

Attached to the worksheet were two faces, one a young attractive man the other an unattractive man, both were wearing identical clothing and were Caucasian, with each participant being exposed to either face or scenario. The participants were required to answer if they would acquiesce to the man's request in both conditions, her level of comfort and her perception of the man's character. It was found that the women's perception of the men's character and her level of comfort were largely unaffected by the looks of the man in low norm violation condition, but their perception of the man's character and her level of comfort were significantly affected by the man's looks in the high norm violation condition, with the unattractive man being viewed far more harshly.

Quotes:

  • Facially unattractive males receive a more negative response in terms of perceived characteristics from violating social norms than facially attractive males.
  • The current experiment found that, while social violation of norms accounted for much of the differences between conditions, a devil effect occurred amplifying the negative feelings toward the unattractive male. In this way, a ‘‘double’’ devil effect occurred between norm violation and unattractiveness.
  • Online dating, in particular, is susceptible to both the halo and devil attractiveness biases. These biases based on attractiveness often influence the perception of a user’s profile and that of the individual as a whole.
  • Risk factors for a devil effect occurring is not exclusive to social dating. The judicial system has been shown to be susceptible to attractiveness halo and devil effects when determining sentences, with the unattractive defendant receiving a more severe penalty than the attractive defendant for committing the same crime.

References:

Men are equally likely as women to be victims of violent crime[edit | edit source]


Statistics show the rates of violent victimization by criminals to be:

  • Australia: The overall victims of violent crimes are 52% men, 48% women.
  • USA: 19.6% of men and 19.7% of women are victims of violent crimes each year.
  • Canada: 11.5% of men and 11.6% of women are victims of violent crimes each year.

Countries may define violent crime differently which will lead to large differences in the total percent between countries, but gender comparisons are still valid within each country.

Available data counters the feminist notion that women require "special protections" or ought to be a specially "protected class". Evidence suggests men warrant the same protections from violence as women.

References:

Any sex a woman has while intoxicated can be defined as rape by a man under US law[edit | edit source]


The US Justice department defines rape as:

  • Rape: The penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim.

This definition very specifically requires a person's body to be penetrated in order for it to constitute rape. In the normal activities of heterosexual sex, then, according to the US Justice System, if both partners are over 18 years old, only a man can rape a woman, and a woman cannot rape a man. A woman would only be capable of raping a man if she were to penetrate his mouth or anus with an object, and this is not usually part of heterosexual activities.

Furthermore, the law in most states of the U.S and in many other legal jurisdictions worldwide, proclaim that if a person is to any extent intoxicated with alcohol (drunk), they are unable to give consent. It is important to note the legal definition of 'intoxication' varies depending on legal jurisdiction, and some jurisdictions categorize sexual assault differently based on whether the victim was voluntarily intoxicated or not (i.e 'date rape'). The man is not generally legally protected if he was himself intoxicated when the act was alleged to have taken place.

In previous generations it was considered normal that two people might meet at a bar or party while drunk and then have sex. However, the combination of these two legal conditions creates a situation where if this now occurs, the man is guilty of rape should the woman choose to later press charges and prove she was intoxicated. This is an example of what happens when the creation of laws is guided by emotional reasons rather than rational thought. Laws like this open up men to grave legal risk for participating in common mutual social sexual liaisons.

References:

As many US men report being 'forced to penetrate' each year as women report being raped[edit | edit source]


The CDC's National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey defines "rape" similarly to the Justice Department - as forced penetration of a person's body:

  • Rape is defined as any completed or attempted unwanted vaginal (for women), oral, or anal penetration through the use of physical force (such as being pinned or held down, or by the use of violence) or threats to physically harm and includes times when the victim was drunk, high, drugged, or passed out and unable to consent. Rape is separated into three types, completed forced penetration, attempted forced penetration, and completed alcohol or drug facilitated penetration.

To complement this definition of "rape", they define "being made to penetrate someone else" as:

  • Being made to penetrate someone else includes times when the victim was made to, or there was an attempt to make them, sexually penetrate someone without the victim’s consent because the victim was physically forced (such as being pinned or held down, or by the use of violence) or threatened with physical harm, or when the victim was drunk, high, drugged, or passed out and unable to consent.

Thus we can see these definitions are roughly equivalent for how a man or woman can generally each be forced into sexual activity against their will. Generally, according to these definitions and standard norms of heterosexual activity, women may be raped, while men may be forced to penetrate.

The statistics for these types of sexual victimization were in 2011, for the 12 months preceding the survey:

  • 1.6% of women were raped by a perpetrator. (An insignificant number of men were raped.)
  • 1.7% of men were made to penetrate a perpetrator. (An insignificant number of women were forced to penetrate.)

In 2010, for the 12 months preceding the survey:

  • 1.1% of women were raped by a perpetrator. (An insignificant number of men were raped.)
  • 1.1% of men were made to penetrate a perpetrator. (An insignificant number of women were forced to penetrate.)

This data suggests that on an annual basis, men are equally likely as women to be forced against their will to participate in sexual intercourse when the definitions that are used are appropriate for each gender and not skewed so that only men can legally be considered "rapists." These statistics do not also take into account the hundreds of thousands of US men who are raped each year in prisons.

Interestingly, although the annual incidence of rape for women and being forced to penetrate for men are similar, a much smaller percent of men than women reported either type of victimization over a lifespan. Mathematically this is only possible if a small group of men are being victimized repeatedly, and thus perhaps this provides evidence for hypergamy even in women's choices of which men they sexually victimize.

References:

More teenage boys are victims of 'partner directed violence' than teenage girls[edit | edit source]


Shaffer et al. (2018) conducted a study on partner directed violence using data from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey drawn from the period of 2003-2013 (n boys = 18,441 and n girls = 17,459.)

The salient question in the survey relating to the researchers analysis of partner directed violence among adolescents was “During the past 12 months, did your boyfriend or girlfriend ever hit, slap or physically hurt you on purpose?” Response options were “no” (0), “yes” (1), and “not in a relationship (97).”

While finding that the rate of violence in romantic relationships among adolescents covered by the sample had been steadily declining (along with violence in general in the area sampled, British Columbia) it was found that from the three surveys conducted during the time-frame analysed by the researchers, boys were 45-58% more likely then girls to be victims of partner directed violence.

Quotes:

  • Controlling for age, boys were 58% more likely than girls to have experienced PDV victimization in 2003 likely in 2008 and 45% more likely in 2013.
  • Results could also reflect differences between boys and girls in their willingness to report PDV victimization. Some studies have indicated that men are more likely than women to under report PDV victimization and minimize the severity of violence within their relationships.
  • In addition, despite recent declines in PDV victimization rates, sex disparities in PDV victimization are not improving. These findings underscore the need for an increased focus on both boys and girls as victims.

References:

More adult men are victims of intimate partner physical violence than women[edit | edit source]


The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey is a survey run periodically by the CDC in America to assess trends in domestic violence. Recent studies have shown that men are more likely to suffer intimate physical violence than women. Furthermore, the rates of male victimization were found to be rising while the rates of female victimization were falling.

Analysts report that these statistics are not given much attention as society tends to treat female-on-male violence as a joke or punchline, and so much momentum has been built towards building the falsehood that only women can be victims of partner physical violence or abuse.

Quotes:

  • According to the CDC’s statistics — estimates based on more than 18,000 telephone-survey responses in the United States — roughly 5,365,000 men had been victims of intimate partner physical violence in the previous 12 months, compared with 4,741,000 women. By the study’s definition, physical violence includes slapping, pushing, and shoving.
  • More severe threats like being beaten, burned, choked, kicked, slammed with a heavy object, or hit with a fist were also tracked. Roughly 40 percent of the victims of severe physical violence were men. The CDC repeated the survey in 2011, the results of which were published in 2014, and found almost identical numbers — with the percentage of male severe physical violence victims slightly rising.
  • "Reports are also showing a decline of the number of women and an increase in the number of men reporting" abuse, says counselor and psychologist Karla Ivankovich, PhD, an adjunct professor of psychology at the University of Illinois, Springfield.
  • Ivankovich says there isn’t much buzz about these numbers or their implications, because we don’t know how to handle intimate partner violence against men.

References:

Health[edit | edit source]

Sex is the most pleasurable, joyous, and meaningful human experience[edit | edit source]


A study by Grimma, Kemp & Jose (2015) was conducted to investigate and further elucidate on the concept of happiness and investigate what activities provide meaning and pleasure to people's lives depending on the individuals orientation to happiness (OTH). The concept of happiness was divided by the authors into the two theories of happiness held by the Ancient Greeks - hedonic happiness (minimizing pain and maximizing pleasure) and/or eudaimonia (a sense of 'meaning' and fulfillment.)

The subjects (N= 173; young university students) completed an initial questionnaire explaining the study and the concepts of happiness. Afterwards, at random intervals, they received text messages from the researchers querying them on the current activity they were engaged in, how happy they were, and how pleasurable, meaningful and engaging said activity was.

Sex was clearly rated as the happiest, and most pleasurable, meaningful, and engaging activity.

Figures:

Ratings of how pleasurable and meaningful activities are, with sex being rated most highly in all categories (Grimma, Kemp & Jose, 2015)

Quotes:

  • Sex/making love was the highest rated behavior on all dimensions in this dataset, consistent with several other daily activity studies.

References:

  • Grimm C, Kemp S, Jose PE. 2014. Orientations to happiness and the experience of everyday activities. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10(3), 207-218. [Abstract] [FullText]

Mating performance is significantly related to happiness and life satisfaction[edit | edit source]


Apostolou, Shialos & Georgiadou (2019) conducted an online survey of (n=735;431 women and 304 men) Greek speaking individuals relating to the effects of interpersonal sexual relationships on happiness and life satisfaction.

The survey was conducted utilizing Google forms, and consisted of five parts: A scale designed to measure life satisfaction, a scale designed to measure happiness, the participants usual daily mood, how much positive or negative emotions the participants felt, and the participants self-reported level of mating success. It was found that this measure was reliable, as it was correlated with the participants likelihood to be single and their self-reported number of past relationships.

An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) performed on the data compiled by the researchers found that the researchers measure of 'mating success' (i.e how easy the participants reported being able to initiate and maintain romantic and sexual relationships) was significantly correlated with life satisfaction, levels of positive or negative emotions,and how happy the participants reported they were.

Figures:

Emotions frequently felt by men based on their levels of romantic success

Data:

Percentages of the participants who gave scores ‘4’ or ‘5’ for each emotion indicating that they experienced it frequently:

Emotions Mating Performance
Low Medium High
Positive Emotions
Happy 35.5 55.5 71.8
Joyful 38.6 50.2 79.3
Delighted 31.9 50.3 72.8
Cheerful 38.1 51.6 70.4
Excited 26 37.9 61.8
Enthusiastic 37.8 35.9 71.8
Lively 28.9 31.9 54.4
Energetic 38.2 49.4 71.7
Average 34.4 45.3 69.3
Negative Emotions
Sad 28.8 13.9 4.4
Blue 37.1 24.9 17.3
Downhearted 22.7 16.4 8.7
Alone 47.5 22.8 11.2
Lonely 41.2 25.4 8.7
Average 35.5 20.7 10.1

Quotes:

  • The results indicated a significant effect of mating performance...with a positive coefficient (0.898) suggesting that a one point increase in the mating performance would result in 0.898 increase in the 0 to 10 scale. Note that the age and the sex were not significant.
  • Consistent with our original hypothesis, we found that people who indicated poor mating performance experienced more negative emotions such as sadness and loneliness, and fewer positive emotions such as happiness and excitement, and they were less satisfied with their lives.
  • To put it differently, a substantial part of poor emotional state observed in the population may be due to poor mating performance. This being the case, research in this area can potentially have important implications for improving well-being - poor mental state could be improved by devising ways to improve mating performance. In turn, this has implications that go beyond the realm of psychology.
  • Alleviating poor mating performance, in most instances, requires external to the individual assistance.

References:

  • Apostolou, M. Shialos, M. Georgiadou, P. 2019. The emotional cost of poor mating performance. Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 138, Pages 188-192 [Abstract] [FullText]

Loneliness increases premature death rates by 26% and is as deadly as obesity[edit | edit source]


A meta-analysis from 2015 involving 70 studies representing more than 3.4 million individuals primarily from North America but also from Europe, Asia and Australia was performed to assess the health effect of loneliness, social isolation, and living alone. They found that:

  • Loneliness increased the risk of premature death by 26%.
  • Social isolation increased the risk of premature death by 29%.
  • Living alone increased the risk of premature death by 32%.

These effects were equal to or exceeded the effect of other well-accepted risk factors such as obesity.

Another meta-analysis from 2010 involved 148 studies representing 308,849 participants. This study found a 50% increased likelihood of survival for participants with stronger social relationships. This finding remained consistent across age, sex, initial health status, cause of death, and follow-up period.

It thus seems clear that humans do require social connection and loneliness is a very deadly phenomenon. When people are not able to build deep, meaningful, and lasting social connections, their physical health suffers as a result.

Quotes:

  • Actual and perceived social isolation are both associated with increased risk for early mortality.
  • Across studies in which several possible confounds were statistically controlled for, the weighted average effect sizes were as follows: social isolation odds ratio (OR) = 1.29, loneliness OR = 1.26, and living alone OR = 1.32, corresponding to an average of 29%, 26%, and 32% increased likelihood of mortality, respectively.
  • Results also differ across participant age, with social deficits being more predictive of death in samples with an average age younger than 65 years.
  • Overall, the influence of both objective and subjective social isolation on risk for mortality is comparable with well-established risk factors for mortality.

References:

Women are happier being single than men[edit | edit source]


Studies show that women are happier being single than men. In a supply and demand model for relationship dynamics, this would thus be expected to decrease supply of available women relative to men who are looking for women, which would inflate female value and allow them to be even more selective.

This is confirmed by other studies which show women also report lower satisfaction about being in any type of relationship than men.

References:

Being single is a greater risk factor for developing depression in men than in women[edit | edit source]


De Velde, Bracke & Levecque (2010) conducted several data analyses of the third round of the European social survey which 'covered 25 European countries in 2006-2007'. Their aim was to examine the variance between the countries and the sexes regarding the risk factors of depression.

Using data from a self-reported eight-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), it was found that marriage and cohabitation was a protective factor against the development of depression in both sexes. Conversely, being single or widowed was a significantly larger risk factor for higher levels of depression in men than in women.

Quotes:

  • Moreover, men seem to suffer more from the loss of a partner, especially since their wife is often also their closest confidant, while women often have confidants that are outside the family. This is partly reflected in our results, with widowhood as well as single-hood being a more significant risk factor for depression in men.

References:

People that are married are 2.4x more likely to recover early from clinical depression[edit | edit source]


An observational study conducted by Barnett S. Meyers, MD; Jo Anne Sirey, PhD; Martha Bruce, PhD (2002), of clinically depressed patients (n=165) found that being currently marriage was a significant protective factor against the pathology of depression. Specifically, they found that being married was a significant independent factor correlated with early remission from depression (Odds-Ratio=2.4.) Being married was the only significant variable associated with an early recovery, apart from effective clinical treatment.

Quotes:

  • Being married (OR = 2.4;95% CI = 1.1-5.3; P = .03) was the only other baseline characteristic or treatment variable that remained significant in the logistic regression.
  • Less severe depression, having received adequate antidepressant treatment, female sex, and being married independently predicted early recovery.

References:

The brain reacts to rejection in the same manner as physical pain[edit | edit source]


Most men in the modern dating world must now face staggering amounts of rejection to even get a few replies or matches. Evidence suggests that these rejections do take a mental toll which feels no different than if the person being rejected is experiencing physical pain.

Quotes:

  • We demonstrate the specificity of the secondary somatosensory cortex and dorsal posterior insula activity to physical pain.
  • Activation in these regions was highly diagnostic of physical pain, with positive predictive values up to 88%.
  • These results give new meaning to the idea that rejection “hurts.”
  • They demonstrate that rejection and physical pain are similar not only in that they are both distressing—they share a common somatosensory representation as well.

References:

Being shown a picture of a romantic partner results in higher pain tolerance[edit | edit source]


Younger et al. conducted a study on n= 15 college students (8 women and 7 men, age range 19–21 years, M = 20 years) in their first 9 months of a romantic relationship, who described themselves as 'intensely in love'. Each participant was required to provide photos of his/her romantic partner and a 'long term acquaintance' of the same attractiveness level as their romantic partner.

The participants were requested to put their hands on a heat block of steadily escalating temperature, which was incrementally increased until to participants reached the limit of the subjective pain (rated on a 1-10 scale) they could endure. The participants were put under three conditions: viewing a picture of their acquaintance, viewing a picture of their romantic partner, or completing a word association task as a control.

It was found that participants could endure significantly more pain when told to focus on the picture of their romantic partner, and during the word association task. The heat was also rated as subjectively less intense when focusing on their romantic partner. Only when they focused on their romantic partner were the brains reward systems activated (as measured by MRI.)

Quotes:

  • As suggested by previous behavioral research, viewing pictures of a romantic partner effectively reduced self-reported pain.
  • We show here that the activation of reward systems by viewing pictures of one's romantic partner is associated with reduced pain. A better understanding of these analgesic pathways may allow us to identify new targets and methods for producing effective pain relief.

Women prefer stoic men who downplay their health problems in a long-term relationship[edit | edit source]


Brown, Hirachi, and Zandbergen (2018) conducted a study of the mate preferences of (N=86) female college students. The participants were shown a set of slideshows, corresponding to the ethnicity they self-identified as (Caucasian, Asian and Pacific Islander.) Each slideshow consisted of nine slides displaying a facially symmetrical versus asymmetrical man, a mesomorphic (waist to shoulder ratio at the 'ideal' of .6) versus a less mesomorphic man and a man in a t-shirt versus a man in a suit.

Each slide was accompanied by a vignette which described the man in the photo, who were described as accomplished college students and sportsmen. The vignettes also described the men as being in various states of illness (cold, headache, and 'vog'-i.e respiratory problems caused by volcanic eruptions in Hawaii; where the study was conducted.) The vignette depicted the man as either being stoic in response to the illnesses or suffering from the illness.

The female participants viewed the slideshow and rated the men on their desirability for either a short-term or long-term relationship. The three pairs of slides where manipulated to vary the vignettes in such parameters as facial symmetry, status/wealth, bodily attractiveness or stoicism.

It was found that the female participants preferred men who 'suffered in silence' as long-term mates, and high status men. In terms of short-term mates, the women displayed a preference for men with high levels of facial symmetry and mesomorphic physiques. The women also displayed a preference for men who succumbed more to the minor illnesses, if they were physically attractive (mesomorphic physique).

Quotes:

  • As predicted by health selection theory, the participants preferred stoic men as LT mates.
  • The theory hypothesizes that men ignore or are unaware of their minor health symptoms because women historically chose mates who ignored minor health problems rather than succumbed to them.
  • If men have been selected to ignore or are not conscious of their health problems, then their health services should emphasize how to increase men’s perceptions of their potential health problems so that they are more like to engage in preventive health care.
  • We found that women switched their preferences away from status to physically attractive men, in terms of facial symmetry and increased mesomorphism when making ST mate choices, replicating previous findings.

References:

Online dating users have lower self-esteem[edit | edit source]


Although online dating has become the most prevalent way for people to now meet, evidence does not show it is healthy. As noted in another entry, male online daters are prone to eating disorders and steroid abuse. And studies show both genders of online daters suffer from increased body dissatisfaction, body shame, body monitoring, comparing oneself physically to others, and using media to guide perspective on appearance and attractiveness.

Quotes:

  • Tinder users, regardless of gender, reported significantly lower levels of satisfaction with face and body and higher levels of internalization, appearance comparisons, and body shame and surveillance than non-users. For self-esteem, male Tinder users scored significantly lower than either male or female non-users.
  • The abundance of potential dating partners available on Tinder, especially for women, may allow users to be particular and even encourage a non committal approach.

References:

ItsOver[edit | edit source]

Celibacy in young unmarried US men is now 28% and rising, particularly affecting ethnic men [edit | edit source]


The best information we have to judge trends of celibacy in North America comes from the NORC GSS, more fully known as the National Organization for Research at the University of Chicago General Social Survey. This is a long running social survey in America which every two years asks a representative group of thousands of Americans questions to gauge numerous aspects about their lives.

One particular area of questioning surrounds sexual relationships. The NORC GSS data has provided some of the most striking signs that celibacy, and in particular male celibacy is skyrocketing in recent years. In fact, male celibacy overall is now at 28%, which is almost triple what it was a decade ago.

The biggest cultural shift that has coincided with this increase in male celibacy is the rise and dominance of online dating, and given the studies referenced above, the effect it is having should be no surprise. However, the trend of increasing male celibacy started even since the 60s according to other data, indicating the sexual revolution which freed women's hypergamy may have been the first step in this direction.

The majority of increased celibacy is being born by ethnic men, while ethnic women by contrast are at their lowest rates of celibacy in history. This trend matches the known racial data covered above, where ethnic men are punished by women in a way that ethnic women are not punished by men.

Interestingly, overall, female celibacy also seems to be rising indicating many women are now dropping out of the dating market altogether. This is represented also by the small proportion of online dating users who are female.

If trends continue without a new cultural shift to compensate, it may well be that America begins to resemble Japan, where >40% of young unmarried men and women are not only not in relationships, but they are virgins.

Figures:

Adult celibacy rates in America from the NORC General Social Survey (Washington Post, 2019)
NORC GSS celibacy rates by race as graphed by SpottedToad, showing the largest increase in celibacy is being encountered among ethnic men, which should be no surprise in the context of other studies (image being used as temporary placeholder - will be replaced shortly -July 13, 2019)

References:

42% of men and 44% of women 18-34 years old and unmarried in Japan are now virgins[edit | edit source]


A 2016 survey of 5,276 Japanese people aged 18 to 34 found that almost 70% of unmarried men and 60% of unmarried women are not in a relationship. Moreover, around 42% of the men and 44.2% of the women admitted they were virgins. This is despite the fact that nearly 90% of the respondents to the survey stated they would like to get married "sometime in the future." 30% of the men sampled and 26% of the women sampled stated they were "not currently looking for a relationship."

There are now many more virgins than in 2010, when the last study was conducted and when only 36.2% of men and 38.7% of women that were unmarried and 18-34 said they had never had sex.

Birth rates in Japan are also dropping and have now reached the lowest levels in recorded history, at an average (total fertility rate) of 1.41 children per women (CIA World Factbook, 2017). This is a fertility rate far below the average replacement level of 2.1. This means that the population of Japan is ageing at an increasing rate, which will most likely put great strain on the Japanese economy. This is also despite efforts in 2018 by the Japanese president Shinzō Abe's government to boost the fertility rate. The effects of this phenomenon have been far reaching, with creditors even considering downgrading Japan's credit rating over their "virginity crisis," as it is felt that without normal relationships between men and women, reproduction will only continue to drop, destabilizing the economy.

Given the trends we are seeing in other countries like USA, it is possible Japan may be a model of what is to come for the west as well.

References:

There are now 70 million excess men in China and India who will live and die without partners[edit | edit source]


A growing epidemic of involuntary celibacy is sweeping India and China as these countries grapple with an excess of 70 million men who will be unable to find a female partner. For perspective, 70 million is 2.9x the population of Australia, 1.9x the population of Canada, and 1.1x the population of Britain. These excess men broadly report suffering tremendously from loneliness and lack of purpose. It is feared they may come to represent a destabilizing force in society, as they feel they have nothing to gain or lose.

For South Asians and Southeast Asians in the west who face the greatest amount of racial discrimination from western women of all races, this data also suggests there would be no better fate waiting for them if they went back "home." Indian and Chinese men appear to have no place on earth they could be considered "desirable."

Quotes:

  • Nothing like this has happened in human history. A combination of cultural preferences, government decree and modern medical technology in the world’s two largest countries has created a gender imbalance on a continental scale. Men outnumber women by 70 million in China and India.
  • The consequences of having too many men, now coming of age, are far-reaching: Beyond an epidemic of loneliness, the imbalance distorts labor markets, drives up savings rates in China and drives down consumption, artificially inflates certain property values, and parallels increases in violent crime, trafficking or prostitution in a growing number of locations.
  • Those consequences are not confined to China and India, but reach deep into their Asian neighbors and distort the economies of Europe and the Americas, as well.

References:

The percent of high school students who date is plummeting[edit | edit source]


Twenge & Park (2017) analyzed seven large, nationally representative surveys of U.S. adolescents 1976–2016 (N=8.44 million, ages 13–19) finding that dating behavior among adolescents is on the decline. In fact, numerous "adult" like behaviors were found to be on the decline: dating, having sex, having a driver's license, trying alcohol, going out without parents, and working for pay all declined very significantly over the decades studied.

They noted these effects were broad-based and not due to extra time students were spending on other activities like homework, volunteering, and extracurriculars. Although the Internet might have accelerated changes, these changes were noted to have started even before the Internet was popularized, so this was not the sole issue.

Primarily, they suggest that adolescents delay adult behaviors when: there are fewer siblings (causing higher parental investment per child), parents have more money to invest in their children, there are no threatening diseases in the community, and expectations for a college education or later age of future reproduction are high.

Figures:

Percent of US high school students who have ever dated, declining considerably over time

Quotes:

  • The decline in adult activities appears across all groups regardless of gender, race, SES, region, or urban/rural location, suggesting a broad-based shift over time [and] does not appear to be due to time spent on student work such as homework, volunteering, and extracurriculars.
  • Internet use has changed more, with 12th graders in the early 2010s spending 11 hours a week online. However, many of the declines in adult activities began before the Internet became widely used. Thus, Internet use does not appear to be the sole cause of the decline in adult activities, though it may play a role in the changes between the mid-2000s and mid-2010s.
  • Fewer adolescents engaged in adult activities when the childhood environment included lower family size, higher median household income, higher life expectancy, and low pathogen prevalence, and when the adolescent environment featured low teen birthrates, a higher mean age at first birth, and higher college enrollment.
  • An economically rich social context with higher parental investment in fewer children, greater life expectancy, fewer dangers from pathogens, and the expectation of tertiary education and later reproduction has produced a generation of young people who are taking on the responsibilities and pleasures of adulthood later than their predecessors.

References:

Age of first sex is rising in USA for both genders[edit | edit source]


https://www.livescience.com/13072-sex-stats-virgins-rise.html https://time.com/4435058/millennials-virgins-sex/

Online dating is now the primary way people meet for relationships[edit | edit source]


According to data from the How Couples Meet and Stay Together survey, a comprehensive national survey on romantic relationships in the US, 39% of couples now meet and start relationships online. This has now become the leading way for relationships to start. The share of couples meeting online has almost doubled since 2009. Between 1995 to 2017, meeting through friends saw the largest decline, with 40% fewer people meeting this way. 23% of that is couples that explicitly met on online dating services, with the number of couples meeting through online dating platforms continuing to grow exponentially.

This is likely the most transformative change that has occurred in the dating sphere in the past 20 years. This change coincides clearly with many of the other trends discussed on this page, such as the overall increase in male celibacy during this time frame and greater amount of sex being consolidated to the top 5-20% of men.

The only two methods of starting relationships that are on the rise are online dating and meeting in bars/restaurants, both of which favor the most physically attractive men heavily and offer minimal opportunities for demonstrating one's personal values and compatibility over time. All other methods of meeting partners are on the decline.

When men often complain of unfairness in online dating, they are typically told, "online dating is not real life." Based on the available data, online dating has become very much real life as it is the most powerful and dominant way to potentially connect couples.

This change has also created a $4 billion online dating industry. Many of these online services primarily target men financially by requiring ongoing payments in order for their profile to be seen by women (e.g. Tinder Boosts).

Figures:

Online dating has rapidly become the dominant way for couples to meet and continues to displace other methods at an incredible rate.

Quotes:

  • For heterosexual couples in the U.S., meeting online has become the most popular way couples meet, eclipsing meeting through friends for the first time around 2013.
  • 39% of heterosexual couples that got together in the US in 2017 met online.
  • The share of couples meeting online has just about doubled since 2009.
  • Between 1995 to 2017, meeting through friends saw the largest decline, from 33% of couples at the start of the period to just 20% at the end.
  • We find that Internet meeting is displacing the roles that family and friends once played in bringing couples together.

References:

Online dating is dominated by men, only 21%-34% of users are female[edit | edit source]


Many commentators on the rising male celibacy rates have suggested these rates reflect men no longer making an effort to meet women. Statistics of gender participation in online dating contradict this perspective. They show men are the overwhelming users of online dating apps while women make up a small minority.

Based on these gender statistics, it seems apparent that men are very much trying, but a disproportionate amount of women aren't interested in participating at all. Any effort to improve relationship uptake between the genders would then need to focus on increasing female, not male, engagement.

Data:

Gender breakdowns of dating app users in 2019 as per Statista are as follows:

Users (%)
Male Female
Tinder 78.5 21.5
Bumble 76.7 23.3
Match 65.9 34.1

References:

30% of millennials are often or always lonely and 22% have no friends[edit | edit source]


Members of the millennial generation were defined as those from ages 23 to 38 in a 2019 poll by YouGov, a polling firm and market research company. The poll included 1,254 adults 18 and up and did not report results for the up-and-coming Gen Z (who report high levels of loneliness on other surveys). Participants were surveyed to assess their levels of social engagement.

30% of millennials said they often or always feel lonely. This was the highest percentage of all the generations surveyed.

22% of millennials said they had zero friends. 27% said they had "no close friends," 30% said they have "no best friends," and 25% said they have no acquaintances.

It seems loneliness and social isolation is on the rise for younger generations, not just sexually and romantically, but in all respects.

Data:

Percent of each generation that often or always feels lonely

Often Or Always Lonely (%)
Milennials 30
Gen X 20
Boomers 15

References:

Men are more likely than women to commit suicide[edit | edit source]


Globally 1.8 men kill themselves for every 1 woman. This ratio is particularly high in westernized nations where in Europe the ratio is 4:1 and Americas it is 3.6:1.

Data:

Suicide gender ratios by region (Source WHO, 2008)

Rank Region Male-Female Ratio
--- World 1.8 : 1
1 Europe 4.0 : 1
2 Americas 3.6 : 1
3 Africa 2.2 : 1
4 South East Asia 1.5 : 1
5 Western Pacific 1.3 : 1
6 Eastern Mediterranean 1.1 : 1

References:

  • Värnik, P. 2012. Suicide in the World. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(3), 760-771. [FullText]

Winners in a rigged game will consider the game fair as long as they keep winning[edit | edit source]


Many people are prone to believing in the just-world fallacy - the notion that our victories and failures are just and the appropriate reward or punishment to our actions. People like to continue believing the world is fair even when they intellectually know that it is not.

Researchers tested people's predispositions to the just-world fallacy by having them engage in a rigged card game. The game was designed so that one player would have a clear advantage throughout the game that would essentially guarantee their victory. They found that although both players could recognize the game was imbalanced, the winner was consistently more likely to still believe the game was "fair" and that their victory was the result of their skill and merit.

They suggest this can help understand how people react to inequalities in life. Generally, in a rigged game, their findings show that those who "win" will have a greater tendency to ignore the legitimate complaints of those who lose.

Quotes:

  • Winners were generally more likely to believe that the game was fair, even when the playing field was most heavily tilted in their favor.
  • In short, it’s not just how the game is played, it’s also whether you win or lose.

References:

Involuntary celibacy is defined academically as 6 months of celibacy despite effort for sex[edit | edit source]


Involuntary celibacy was academically defined in Donnelly et al. (2001) in an peer-reviewed article titled "Involuntary celibacy: A life course analysis" published in The Journal of Sex Research.

To gain insight on the incel condition, a questionnaire was filled out by 60 men and 22 women who identified as involuntarily celibate. Findings showed that involuntary celibates may come from broad sexual and personal backgrounds. Three categories were developed: virgins were those who had never had sex, singles had sex in the past but were unable to establish current sexual relationships, and partnereds were currently in sexless relationships (which included 28% of respondents). Of the virgin involuntary celibates, 76% were male, and 24% were female.

Overall, 35% of respondents felt dissatisfied, frustrated, or angry about their lack of sexual relationships regardless of their current partnership status. Most involuntary celibates appeared to feel despair, depression, frustration and a loss of confidence.

The study also found grounding for a common incel concern - that as sexual and relationship milestones are missed, it becomes harder and harder to achieve normality going forward. Many felt that their sexual development had somehow stalled in an earlier stage of life, leading them to feel different from their peers and like they will never catch up.

Quotes:

  • In this research, we define the involuntary celibate as one who desires to have sex, but has been unable to find a willing partner for at least 6 months prior to being surveyed. The 6-month mark reflects the reality that people often go without sex for weeks or months, but after a certain length of time, begin to worry. We realize, however, the arbitrariness of choosing a specific length of time, and suggest that what is really important is whether or not persons define themselves as involuntarily celibate. As Thomas (1966) pointed out, "situations we define as real become real in their consequences".
  • Involuntary celibates may be married or partnered persons whose partners no longer desire to have sex with them, unpartnered singles who have never had sex, or unpartnered singles who have had sexual relationships in the past, but are unable to currently find partners. Involuntary celibates include heterosexuals, bisexuals, homosexuals, and transsexuals.
  • Pervasive in our respondents' accounts was the theme of becoming and remaining off time in making normative sexual transitions, which in turn perpetuated a celibate life course or trajectory.

References:

  • Donnelly, D. Burgess, E. Anderson, S. Davis, R. Dillard, J. 2001. Involuntary celibacy: A life course analysis. The Journal of Sex Research Volume 38, 2001 - Issue 2, Pages 159-169. [Abstract] [FullText]

Incel forums are disproportionately populated by suicidal, disabled, autistic, and ethnic men[edit | edit source]


A poll from Reddit's r/braincels shows that whites constitute only 28% of that forum's population, with the largest racial demographic being South Asian (eg. Indian). However, a subsequent poll from the same forum with a larger sample size (n=1267), showed that 54.8% of the respondents to the poll were white. The most recent poll by the website incels.co showed that 57% of its members were white.

For comparison, surveys on Reddit of the general userbase tend to show 80% white users overall. Thus we can approximate that the typical Reddit population is 1.4-3.6 times more white than incel groups. Given the sections on race above, this should not be surprising.

Other characteristics of incels.co users from site surveys include:

  • 78% report constantly suffering from depression, anxiety, and stress.
  • 82% have considered suicide.
  • 62% have considered surgery to improve their looks.
  • 77% report being healthy weight or underweight (only 23% report being overweight, which is far less than the general western population average).
  • 57% report suffering from a medical condition like autism or a physical disability that impairs their normal daily functions.

References:



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