Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators or SARMs are 'research chemicals' (drugs that haven't been approved for use by governmental bodies) able to improve strength and muscle-building capacities. These chemicals bind with androgen receptors like anabolic steroids do, but are more selective, that means they mainly bind with androgen receptors in muscles and bones.
List of SARMs[edit | edit source]
The list is ordered by the most powerful according to recreational users:
- S23: an investigational male hormonal contraceptive which also has a great impact on muscle growth. It may (like anabolic steroids), cause typically reversible male infertility via inhibiting spermatogenesis, as it has been found to do so in male rats.
- YK11: a steroidal SARM, which is claimed to increase the follistatin level. This substance has not currently been tested in humans, or animals. Follistatin has been found in animal studies to have myostatin-inhibiting effects. This has potential implications for the effectiveness of YK-11 in inducing hypertrophy in humans, as myostatin acts to inhibit muscle growth. An extremely small number of people naturally have a genetic myostatin deficiency, which results in them gaining muscle mass extremely easily, even without strength training. Some breeds of cattle have also been selectively bred to develop this deficiency, to increase meat yields.
- Andarine: an investigational drug developed for the purpose of treating conditions like muscle wasting, osteoporosis and prostate hyperplasia. Recreational users have reported a great muscle growth, but also vision side effects.
- RAD140: a research chemical, it is currently undergoing clinical trials to examine its potential in treating muscle wasting and breast cancer. Recreational users have reported a significant strength improvement.
- Ligandrol (VK5211, LGD-4033): another research chemical, that is currently undergoing clinical trials to examine its potential for treating muscle wasting and osteoporosis. Recreational users have reported good muscle growth effects.
- Ostarine: the weakest SARM, recreational users typically use it to prevent muscle loss during a 'cutting' (weight loss) phase.
- MK-677: Not a SARM, though often lumped in with SARMs and commonly sold on sites dedicated to SARM dealing. MK-677 is a human growth hormone secretagogue. It has been the subject of clinical trials in humans. The results of these trials indicate that it is successful in increasing serum levels of IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor I) and growth hormone. The increases in fat-free body mass associated with the dose commonly advised by recreational users (25mg per day) have been found to be fairly substantial (roughly equivalent to a low dose of exogenous testosterone) in some trials.
Potential effects[edit | edit source]
The FDA claims life threatening reactions, including liver toxicity, have occurred in people taking products containing SARMs. SARMs also have the potential to increase the risk of heart attack and stroke. Just like steroids, SARMs cause testosterone production suppression; this side effect can be countered by taking SERM (selective estrogen receptor modulators) or aromatase inhibtor drugs after the cycle (the so called PCT). Some argue this is just risking side-effects from those drugs for no good reason, as SARMS do not fully suppress T production like anabolic steroids typically do. After multiple years of SARM usage, the testosterone suppression may be permanent, but this is not known as there exists no high-quality long-term human trials regarding the effects of SARMs.
Secondary Effects of using SERMs[edit | edit source]
SERMs are historically used as a way of "Chemically Castration", historically used against Alan Turning (with DES) due to his homosexual tendencies, which caused his suicide. If one were to juggle between using SARMs and SERMs, it would not just has the risk of physical damage, but neurological damage, since estrogen is the leading chemical in protecting the brain from having psychosis.
Legal status[edit | edit source]
SARMs are currently legally saleable as "research samples" on the USA. However, a bill was introduced to the US Congress in 2019 which proposes the classification of SARMS as a controlled substance, similar to anabolic Steroids.
References[edit | edit source]