Scientific Blackpill (Supplemental)

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This page should be used for working storage of scientific blackpills that are not necessarily of the highest degree of relevance to inceldom, but still interesting to consider and of high quality. For the primary Scientific Blackpill article, please see here.


Categories: Feminism Tee-Hee Hypergamy Stoicism Crime Race Body Misandry Looks Face Height Voice Monogamy Cucks Tinder Politics Sex Sluts Health ItsOver

Feminism[edit | edit source]

Women were historically predominantly involved in cooking and they never dominated men[edit | edit source]

On her book Kinship and Gender (2010), anthropologist Linda Stone writes that, "Today anthropologists generally agree that cases of true matriarchy do not exist in human society, and that they most probably never have."

Murdock & Provost (1973) analyzed task division between the sexes among a wide variety of historical human societies (N = 185). It is noticeable that men were much more involved in the organization of resources extraction, often far away from home, whereas women were primarily involved in task close to the home or community. This proves that women have been overwhelmingly dependent on men organizing pretty much everything. This sex difference in public vs private orientation is also noticeable in sex differences in gossip: Women are twice as talkative in small groups and gossip more about close acquaintances and friends (especially about the looks of other females). The table below is recreated from Table 1 in the study. 'Male index' is a weighted sum of the percentages with 1.0 for 'Males only', 0.8 for 'Males mainly', 0.5 for 'Equal', 0.2 for 'Females mainly' and 0.0 for 'Females only'.

Wood & Eagly (2002) further summarized how women have been much more involved in rising the offspring. Quite often older sisters cared for their younger siblings.


Number of societies with respective gender participation per task out of 185 societies (SCCS dataset)
Task Category Males
Equal Females
index (%)
Vegetable food preparation 3 1 4 21 145 5.75
Cooking food preparation 0 2 2 63 117 8.26
Water Fetching extractive industries 4 4 8 13 131 8.62
Laundering miscellaneous 5 0 4 8 49 13.03
Spinning intermediate processing 7 3 4 5 72 13.63
Dairy food preparation 4 0 0 0 24 14.29
Vegetal food collection 6 4 18 42 65 19.70
Pottery manufacturing 14 5 6 6 74 21.14
Drinks food preparation 15 3 4 4 65 22.20
Clothing manufacturing 16 4 11 13 78 22.38
Fuel Gathering extractive industries 25 12 12 24 94 27.19
Shellfish/Small Aquatic Fauna food collection 11 4 1 12 27 31.09
Loom Weaving intermediate processing 24 0 6 8 50 32.50
Preservation food preparation 18 2 3 3 40 32.88
Small Domestic Animals food production 19 8 14 12 44 35.88
Matmaking manufacturing 30 4 9 5 55 37.57
Burden Carrying miscellaneous 18 12 46 34 36 39.32
Basketmaking manufacturing 37 9 15 18 51 42.54
Milking food production 15 2 8 2 21 43.75
Crop Tending food production 22 23 24 30 32 44.58
Harvesting food production 10 37 34 34 26 44.96
Leather manufacturing 35 3 2 5 29 53.24
Planting food production 27 35 33 26 20 54.40
Eggs, Insects, & small land fauna food collection 27 3 9 13 15 54.48
Preparation of Skins intermediate processing 39 4 2 5 31 54.57
Bodily Mutilation miscellaneous 36 4 48 6 12 60.75
Fire miscellaneous 40 6 16 4 20 62.33
Making of Rope or Cordage manufacturing 62 7 18 5 19 69.91
Netmaking manufacturing 42 2 5 1 15 71.23
Soil Preparation food production 66 27 14 17 10 73.13
Housebuilding miscellaneous 105 30 14 9 20 77.42
Large Domestic Animals food production 54 24 14 3 3 82.45
Fishing food collection 83 45 8 5 2 86.71
Land Clearance food production 95 34 6 3 1 90.50
Honey food collection 39 5 2 0 2 91.67
Butchering food preparation 122 9 4 4 4 92.31
Bonesetting/Surgery miscellaneous 34 6 4 0 0 92.73
Mining/Quarrying extractive industries 31 1 2 0 1 93.71
Bone manufacturing 71 7 2 0 2 94.63
Stone manufacturing 67 0 6 0 0 95.89
Boatbuilding miscellaneous 84 3 3 0 1 96.59
Trapping food collection 136 12 1 1 0 97.53
Musical Instruments manufacturing 83 3 1 0 1 97.61
Fowling food collection 131 5 3 0 0 98.20
Wood manufacturing 159 3 1 1 0 98.84
Large Land Fauna food collection 139 5 0 0 0 99.31
Lumbering extractive industries 135 4 0 0 0 99.42
Metalworking manufacturing 85 1 0 0 0 99.77
Large Aquatic Fauna food collection 48 0 0 0 0 100.00
Smelting intermediate processing 37 0 0 0 0 100.00


  • Stone L. 2011. Kinship and Gender. P. 226. [Excerpt] [Related]
  • Murdock GP, Provost C. 1973. Factors in the Division of Labor by Sex: A Cross-Cultural Analysis. Ethnology, 12(2), 203. [Abstract]
  • Wood W, Eagly AH. 2002. A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: implications for the origins of sex differences. Psychological bulletin. 128(5):699. [Abstract]

Almost all men are stronger than almost all women[edit | edit source]

Reddit user grasshoppermouse combined grip strength by age and sex based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012. Combined grip strength is the sum of the largest isometric grip strength readings from each hand, measured using a handgrip dynamometer. Grip strength, in turn, is an index of upper body strength. Comparing the combined grip strength of a sample size N = 7064 he could demonstrate that there are substantial sex differences in strength, corroborating evidence of women's natural dependence on men.

Related to this, Sell et al. (2012) summarized how men, but not women, show distinct adaptations for combat such as stronger bones, more muscle mass, faster coordination and orientation, less confusion, better metabolism. See the table (copied from Table 1 in the paper).


Sex differences in grip strength.


Table 1: Sex differences that suggest male design for combat in humans
Male humans have Reference
Greater upper body strength Lassek and Gaulin 2009
Taller bodies Alexander et al. 1979
Heavier bodies Loomba-Albrecht and Styne 2009
Higher basal metabolic rates Garn and Clark 1953
Faster reaction times Der and Deary 2006
Thicker bones in the jaw Humphrey et al. 1999
Faster mental rotation and spatial visualization Voyer et al. 1995
More accurate throwing Jardine and Martin 1983
More accurate blocking of thrown objects Watson and Kimura 1989
More interest in the practice of combat skills Gibbons et al. 1997
Stronger bones Schoenau et al. 2001
Greater bone density specifically in the arms Wells 2007
Easier heat dissipation Burse 1979
More hemoglobin in the blood Waalen and Beutler 2001
Higher muscle-to-fat ratio Loomba-Albrecht and Styne 2009
Larger hearts Tanner 1970
Higher systolic blood pressure Tanner 1970
Broader shoulders enabling efficient weapon use Brues 1959; Tanner 1989
Larger sweat capacity Burse 1979
Larger circulating blood volume Burse 1979
Greater resistance to dehydration Burse 1979
Tolerance for risk and dangerous activities Wilson et al. 2009
Faster sensory frame shifting (easier confused) Cadieux et al. 2010
Thicker skin Shuster et al. (1975)
Larger lung capacity Gursoy 2010
Greater use of physical and homicidal aggression Daly and Wilson 1988


  • grasshoppermouse. 2016. Almost all men are stronger than almost all women. DataIsBeautiful. Reddit. [Source]
  • Sell A, Hone LS, Pound N. 2012. The importance of physical strength to human males. Human Nature. 1;23(1):30-44. [Abstract]

Even feminist women tend to prefer men who patronize and care for them[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Women prefer men with BS attitudes over those without. The predominant explanation for this paradox is that women respond to the superficially positive appearance of BS without being aware of its subtly harmful effects. We propose an alternative explanation drawn from evolutionary and sociocultural theories on mate preferences: Women find BS men attractive because BS attitudes and behaviors signal that a man is willing to invest. Five studies showed that women prefer men with BS attitudes (Studies 1a, 1b, and 3) and behaviors (Studies 2a and 2b), especially in mating contexts, because BS mates are perceived as willing to invest (protect, provide, and commit). Women preferred BS men despite also perceiving them as patronizing and undermining. These findings extend understanding of women’s motives for endorsing BS and suggest that women prefer BS men despite having awareness of the harmful consequences.


  • Study 1a supported the prediction that a BS (benevolent sexist) romantic partner would be perceived as more willing to protect, provide, and commit (willing to invest), and, consistent with Bohner et al. (2010), more attractive than a non-BS romantic partner.
  • Despite perceiving the BS partner as more undermining and patronizing than the non-BS partner, women still found the BS partner more attractive. According to the mediation analysis, this was because the appeal of the BS partner’s willingness to invest outweighed the perceived downsides of his patronizing and undermining manner.
  • The harmful effects of a mate’s BS attitudes are more salient for women who strongly support gender equality, but even for them, the appeal of a mate who shows willingness to invest outweighs the perceived negative effects of BS attitudes.


  • Gul P, Kupfer TR. 2019. Benevolent Sexism and Mate Preferences: Why Do Women Prefer Benevolent Men Despite Recognizing That They Can Be Undermining? [Abstract]

The "Gender Pay Gap" does not exist[edit | edit source]


There is no significant gender disparity in STEM graduates by sex in the U.S[edit | edit source]


Men face more discrimination overall in society than women[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: The Global Gender Gap Index is one of the best-known measures of national gender inequality, used by both academics and policy makers. We argue that that this measure has a number of problems and introduce a simpler measure of national levels of gender inequality. Our proposed measure is based on sex differences in the opportunity to lead a long healthy and satisfied life that is grounded on educational opportunities. The measure better captures variation in gender inequality than other measures, with inclusion of outcomes that can be favorable or unfavorable to either sex, not simply unfavorable to women. We focus on some of the most basic measures available for 134 countries from 2012–2016 (i.e., disadvantages in children’s basic education, life satisfaction, and healthy life span) and we relate these to various measures, including the United Nations' Human Development Index. We found that low levels of human development are typically associated with disadvantages for girls and women, while medium and high levels of development are typically associated with disadvantages for boys and men. Countries with the highest levels of human development are closest to gender parity, albeit typically with a slight advantage for women. We argue that the disparities, when they are found, are related to the sexual division of labor (i.e., traditional gender roles) in poorly developed countries as well as the underinvestment in preventative health care in more developed nations.


  • [Discussion]
  • Stoet G, Geary DC. 2019. A simplified approach to measuring national gender inequality [Abstract]

Countries with pronounced feminist policies have fewer women in leadership positions[edit | edit source]


  • Sanandaji N. 2016. The Nordic Gender Equality Paradox: How Nordic Welfare States are Not Only Empowering Women, But Also (un) intentionally Holding Them Back. Timbro. [Website]
  • Sanandaji N, 2018. The Nordic Glass Ceiling. Policy Analysis, (835). [Article]

Women have a 4.5x greater preference for their own sex than men do[edit | edit source]

In four experiments, Rudman and Goodwin (2004) replicated an earlier result that women's automatic in-group bias is remarkably stronger than men's. The effect was analyzed in various regards, e.g. the preference of mothers over their fathers, and regarding associations with violence and intimidation. Overall, they found, females preferred their own gender 4.5 times as much as males.

As women prefer themselves more than men, this results in women being overall more positively evaluated, which is called the women-are-wonderful effect. One can see this effect also ratings of physical attractiveness, which may ultimately be rooted in Bateman's principle.

In Experiment 1, only women (not men) showed cognitive balance among in-group bias, identity, and self-esteem (A. G. Greenwald et al., 2002), revealing that men lack a mechanism that bolsters automatic own group preference. Experiments 2 and 3 found pro-female bias to the extent that participants


  • Rudman LA, Goodwin SA. 2004. Gender differences in automatic in-group bias: Why do women like women more than men like men? [Abstract]

"High potential" women earn more than "high potential" men, but don't report higher pay satisfaction[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: In this constructive replication, we revisit a provocative study by Leslie, Manchester, and Dahm (2017). They found that gender and being designated a high‐potential employee interacted in accounting for pay and that this resulted in a reversal in the commonly observed gender pay gap favoring men. Our primary aim was to examine important boundary conditions associated with their work by (a) conducting a study using a sample that would better generalize across industries and to individuals who aspire to reach senior management, (b) adding critical control variables to the statistical models used in the pay equation, and (c) by introducing a different conceptualization of the high‐potential construct. Also, to better understand the consequences of their study, we considered an additional dependent variable that addressed pay satisfaction. Even after making these model additions, the gender by high‐potential interaction term was significant—ruling out four plausible third‐variable explanations for the Leslie et al. finding. Moreover, these confirming results were observed using a sample that represented individuals employed in a wide range of industries, who had the educational backgrounds, career histories, and motivational states typically required of candidates competing for senior executive roles. Furthermore, high‐potential women did not report higher levels of pay satisfaction, suggesting that high‐potential women did not perceive their pay premium to be an inequitable advantage and that there may be limited positive return associated with using a pay premium to retain high‐potential talent.


Women report lower job satisfaction working under a female boss, men don't[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: The participation of women in the labor force has grown significantly over the past 50 years, and with this, women are increasingly holding managerial and supervisory positions. Yet little is known about how female supervisors impact employee well-being. Using two distinct datasets of US workers, we provide previously undocumented evidence that women are less satisfied with their jobs when they have a female boss. Male job satisfaction, by contrast, is unaffected. Crucially our study is able to control for individual worker fixed effects and to identify the impact of a change in supervisor gender on worker well-being without other alterations in the worker's job.

  • In two US datasets, female job satisfaction is lower under female supervision.
  • Male job satisfaction is unaffected by the gender of the boss.
  • The results remain after controlling for a host of relevant observable factors.
  • Notably the results also persist after controlling for worker-in-job fixed effects.


  • Artz B, Taengnoi S. 2016. Do women prefer female bosses? [Abstract]

Women report greater levels of incivility at work from other women[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Research conducted on workplace incivility—a low intensity form of deviant behavior—has generally shown that women report higher levels of incivility at work. However, to date, it is unclear as to whether women are primarily treated uncivilly by men (i.e., members of the socially dominant group/out-group) or other women (i.e., members of in-group) in organizations. In light of different theorizing surrounding gender and incivility, we examine whether women experience increased incivility from other women or men, and whether this effect is amplified for women who exhibit higher agency and less communion at work given that these traits and behaviors violate stereotypical gender norms. Across three complementary studies, results indicate that women report experiencing more incivility from other women than from men, with this effect being amplified for women who are more agentic at work. Further, agentic women who experience increased female-instigated incivility from their coworkers report lower well-being (job satisfaction, psychological vitality) and increased work withdrawal (turnover intentions). Theoretical implications tied to gender and incivility are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)


  • Gabriel AS, Butts MM, Yuan Z, Rosen RL, Sliter MT. 2018. Further understanding incivility in the workplace: The effects of gender, agency, and communion [Abstract]

Competitive women are more likely to 'slut shame' sexual rivals[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Researchers have suggested that women compete with same-sex peers using indirect social tactics. However, the specific predictors and mechanisms of this form of female intrasexual competition are less well understood. We propose that one mechanism by which women harm rivals' social opportunities is through selectively transmitting reputation-relevant social information. Moreover, we contend that this behavior is designed to undermine the romantic and social appeal of same-sex romantic rivals who are perceived to be threatening. Evidence from five studies suggests that women's dissemination of social information is strategic and reliably predicted by various cues of romantic rival threat: attempts at mate poaching (Study 1), physical attractiveness (Studies 2 and 3), and provocative clothing (Studies 4 and 5). Women strategically harmed and failed to enhance the reputations of other women who threatened their romantic prospects directly (by flirting with their romantic partners) and indirectly (by being attractive or provocatively dressed). Women's dispositional levels of competitiveness also predicted their information transmission: highly competitive women (both generally and in romantic domains specifically) disclosed more reputation-damaging information than did less competitive women. Furthermore, women transmitted reputation-harming information about female targets independent of how much they explicitly liked those targets, suggesting a disconnect between women's intentions and their gossip behavior. Irrespective of the gossiper's intentions, pilot data confirmed that social harm is likely to befall the women targeted by the transmission of reputation-damaging social information.

  • Women transmit same-sex romantic rivals' social information strategically.
  • Women harm reputations of attractive, flirtatious, and provocatively dressed women.
  • Competitive women transmit more reputation-harming information about other women.
  • Women damage rivals' reputations but do not report explicitly disliking them.


  • Reynolds T, Baumeister RF, Maner JK. 2018. Competitive reputation manipulation: Women strategically transmit social information about romantic rivals [Abstract]

High ranking women are less generous towards same sex subordinates than men[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Studies on human cooperation using economic games rarely include ecologically relevant factors. In studies on non-human primates however, both status and sex typically influence patterns of cooperation. Across primate species, high status individuals are more likely to cooperate, though this depends on the species-specific social structure of each sex. Based on human social structure, we predict that higher status males who interact more in hierarchical groups than females, will invest more than high status females in valued same-sex peers after successful cooperation. Across three studies, 187 male and 188 female participants cooperated with a (fictitious) same-sex partner who varied in competence. Participants then divided a reward between themselves and their partner. High status was induced in three different ways in each study, social influence, leadership and power. No overall sex difference in reward sharing was observed. Consistent with the hypothesis however, across all three studies, high status males invested more than high status females in cooperative partners, suggesting that high status males intuitively evaluate sharing rewards with same-sex partners as more beneficial.


  • Markovits H, Gauthier E, Gagnon-St-Pierre É, Benenson JF. 2017. High status males invest more than high status females in lower status same-sex collaborators [Abstract]

Self-rated female happiness has been declining since the 1970s in the US[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: By many objective measures the lives of women in the United States have improved over the past 35 years, yet we show that measures of subjective well-being indicate that women's happiness has declined both absolutely and relative to men. The paradox of women's declining relative well-being is found across various datasets, measures of subjective well-being, and is pervasive across demographic groups and industrialized countries. Relative declines in female happiness have eroded a gender gap in happiness in which women in the 1970s typically reported higher subjective well-being than did men. These declines have continued and a new gender gap is emerging -- one with higher subjective well-being for men.


Individuals of both sexes generally evaluate females in aggregate more positively than males[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: In an experiment in which male and female respondents evaluated the social category of women or men on several types of measures, analysis of respondents' attitudes toward the sexes and of the evaluative content of their beliefs established that they evaluated women more favorably than men. In addition, analysis of respondents' emotional reactions toward women and men did not yield evidence of negativity toward women at the emotional level. Nor did it appear that respondents' very positive evaluations of women masked ambivalence toward them. This research, therefore, provides strong evidence that women are evaluated quite favorably—in fact, more favorably than men.


  • Eagly AH, Mladinic A, Otto S. 1991. ARE WOMEN EVALUATED MORE FAVORABLY THAN MEN? An Analysis of Attitudes, Beliefs, and Emotions [Abstract]

It is not men who suppress female sexuality but women themselves[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Whether it is men or women who suppress female sexuality has important implications for understanding gendered relations, ultimately providing insight into one widespread cause of female disadvantage. The question of which sex suppresses female sexuality more avidly, however, neglects that our interests are never unambiguously masculine or feminine; each of us has a combination of male and female kin which alters how much of our future fitness derive from each sex. Here we exploit a nationally representative sample of 600 Tunisians to test whether support for Islamic veiling—a proxy for female sexual suppression—is more common amongst one sex than the other, and is affected by the relative sex of one's offspring (i.e., the number of sons relative to daughters). We find that men are more supportive of Islamic veiling than women, but women with more sons are more supportive of veiling and more likely to wear veils than women with fewer sons. All effects were robust to the inclusion of religiosity, which was weaker amongst men and unrelated to the number of sons a woman had. The number of daughters affected neither religiosity nor support for veiling, but did increase women's likelihood of wearing contemporary, fashionable Tunisian veils compared with no head covering. We further found that men were more religious if they had more sons. Overall, these findings highlight that far from being the fixed strategy of one sex or the other, female sexual suppression manifests facultatively to promote one's reproductive interests directly or indirectly by creating conditions beneficial to one's descendent kin. These results show that both men and women can suppress female sexuality, although the function in either case appears more closely aligned with male rather than female interests.

Women gain leverage over men by suppressing female promiscuity and thereby making sex scarce. Men and their mothers want certainty about the biological fatherhood of the men's offspring and hence discourage female infidelity.


  • Baumeister RF, Twenge JM. 2002. Cultural Suppression of Female Sexuality. [Abstract] [FullText]
  • Buckner W. 2018. On the Nature of Patriarchy. [Article]
  • Blake KR, Fourati M, Brooks RC. 2018. Who suppresses female sexuality? An examination of support for Islamic veiling in a secular Muslim democracy as a function of sex and offspring sex [Abstract]

Gender-biased grading accounts for 21 percent of boys falling behind girls in math during middle school [edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: I use a combination of blind and non-blind test scores to show that middle school teachers favor girls when they grade. This favoritism, estimated in the form of individual teacher effects, has long-term consequences: as measured by their national evaluations three years later, male students make less progress than their female counterparts. Gender-biased grading accounts for 21 percent of boys falling behind girls in math during middle school. On the other hand, girls who benefit from gender bias in math are more likely to select a science track in high school. (Terrier 2016)

Abstract from the paper: Using three decades of data from the “Monitoring the Future” cross-sectional surveys, this paper showsthat, from the 1980s to the 2000s, the mode of girls’ high school GPA distribution has shifted from“B” to “A”, essentially “leaving boys behind” as the mode of boys’ GPA distribution stayed at “B”.In a reweighted Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition of achievement at each GPA level, we find that genderdifferences in post-secondary expectations, controlling for school ability, and as early as 8th gradeare the most important factor accounting for this trend. Increases in the growing proportion of girlswho aim for a post-graduate degree are sufficient to account for the increase over time in the proportionof girls earning “A’s”. The larger relative share of boys obtaining “C” and C+” can be accounted forby a higher frequency of school misbehavior and a higher proportion of boys aiming for a two-yearcollege degree. ()


  • Terrier C. 2016. Boys Lag Behind: How Teachers’ Gender Biases Affect Student Achievement. [FullText]
  • [Abstract]

Tee-Hee[edit | edit source]

Women are more likely to be described as 'difficult' to deal with than men[edit | edit source]

Offer et al. (2018) analyzed poeple's social environment regard individuals whom they find difficult. In total, N = 1,100 respondents (divided into two cohorts, 21-30 and 50-70) described over 12,000 relationships. The authors analyzed ties to people nominated as a person whom they “sometimes find demanding or difficult.” They found on average, around 15 percent of people we interact with are "difficult". After holding ego and alter traits constant, close kin, especially female kin (sisters, mothers and older female romantic partners) and aging parents, were especially likely to be named as difficult alters. Friends were less likely, and co-workers more likely, to be listed only as difficult alters.

The authors suggest the female overrepresentation among difficult people is best explained by women’s greater involvement in kinship networks, having the role of household managers and hence having more 'friction surface'. This explanation fails to explain the large difference between the perception of brothers and sisters, however. It also ignores the entire literature on the women-are-wonderful effect, which should actually give women a more positive evaluation. Hence women must be even worse than people admit. A better explanation is women's neurotic, solipsist and gossipy childishness.


No asterisk is n.s., * is p < .05, ** is p < .01, *** is p < .001, c is for cohort test, s for sex test.
Group % reporting difficult
(respondents 21-30 yo, N = 480)
% reporting difficult
(respondents 50-70 yo, N = 666)
% reporting difficult
(all respondents, N = 1,146)
Wife 27.00 s* 13.00 c*** 18.86
Husband 20.00 s* 15.00 c* 17.09
Female romantic partner 14.00 s* 28.00 c***, s*** 22.14 s***
Male romantic partner 19.00 s* 14.00 c*, s*** 16.09 s***
Mother 24.00 s*** 29.00 s* 26.91 s***
Father 13.00 s*** 24.00 c***, s* 19.39 s***
Daughter 0.00 16.00 9.30
Son 0.00 19.00 11.04
Sister 30.00 s*** 8.00 c***, s* 17.21 s***
Brother 13.00 s*** 5.00 c***, s* 8.35 s***
Other female relative 6.00 8.00 s* 7.16
Other male relative 7.00 5.00 s* 5.84
All female 20.20 s* 17.20 s* 18.46 s***
All male 14.40 s* 12.60 s* 13.35 s***


  • Another important family-related finding indicates that female relatives were generally more likely than male relatives to be named as either difficult-only ties or as difficult engaged-in-exchange ties.
  • Offer S, Fischer CS. 2018. Difficult People: Who Is Perceived to Be Demanding in Personal Networks and Why Are They There? [Abstract]

Women strategically manipulate other women's reputation to win out attracting the attention from men[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Researchers have suggested that women compete with same-sex peers using indirect social tactics. However, the specific predictors and mechanisms of this form of female intrasexual competition are less well understood. We propose that one mechanism by which women harm rivals' social opportunities is through selectively transmitting reputation-relevant social information. Moreover, we contend that this behavior is designed to undermine the romantic and social appeal of same-sex romantic rivals who are perceived to be threatening. Evidence from five studies suggests that women's dissemination of social information is strategic and reliably predicted by various cues of romantic rival threat: attempts at mate poaching (Study 1), physical attractiveness (Studies 2 and 3), and provocative clothing (Studies 4 and 5). Women strategically harmed and failed to enhance the reputations of other women who threatened their romantic prospects directly (by flirting with their romantic partners) and indirectly (by being attractive or provocatively dressed). Women's dispositional levels of competitiveness also predicted their information transmission: highly competitive women (both generally and in romantic domains specifically) disclosed more reputation-damaging information than did less competitive women. Furthermore, women transmitted reputation-harming information about female targets independent of how much they explicitly liked those targets, suggesting a disconnect between women's intentions and their gossip behavior. Irrespective of the gossiper's intentions, pilot data confirmed that social harm is likely to befall the women targeted by the transmission of reputation-damaging social information.

  • Women transmit same-sex romantic rivals' social information strategically.
  • Women harm reputations of attractive, flirtatious, and provocatively dressed women.
  • Competitive women transmit more reputation-harming information about other women.
  • Women damage rivals' reputations but do not report explicitly disliking them.


  • Reynolds T, Baumeister RF, Maner JK. 2018. Competitive reputation manipulation: Women strategically transmit social information about romantic rivals [Abstract]

Women gossip significantly more about physical appearance than men[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Gossip has been related to friendship as it can increase the bond between people and sense of belonging to a group. However, the role of gender in the relationship between gossip and friendship has not been examined in the literature. So, the present study examined gender differences in the relationship between friendship quality and gossip tendency with a sample of 167 female and 69 male Western Canadian undergraduate University students using the Friendship questionnaire and the Tendency to Gossip questionnaire. Given gender differences in friendship, with males being more agentic and females more communal, the relationship between gossip and friendship was predicted to be stronger in the males compared to the females. Friendship quality was positively correlated with gossip tendency in the males, but this effect was not present with the females. The information gossip scale was strongly associated with male friendship quality. This finding may be related to the greater emphasis on status with males, and that possession of knowledge and control of information is a method of attaining status. Physical appearance gossip was found to be more prevalent in females, but not related to friendship quality. This type of gossip may be a more of a competitive threat to the relationship in females. Achievement related gossip was also related to male friendship quality, which reflects the greater emphasis on individuation in male friendships.


  • Watson DC. 2012. Gender Differences in Gossip and Friendship [Abstract]

Women are twice as talkative in small groups than men[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Research on human social interactions has traditionally relied on self-reports. Despite their widespread use, self-reported accounts of behaviour are prone to biases and necessarily reduce the range of behaviours, and the number of subjects, that may be studied simultaneously. The development of ever smaller sensors makes it possible to study group-level human behaviour in naturalistic settings outside research laboratories. We used such sensors, sociometers, to examine gender, talkativeness and interaction style in two different contexts. Here, we find that in the collaborative context, women were much more likely to be physically proximate to other women and were also significantly more talkative than men, especially in small groups. In contrast, there were no gender-based differences in the non-collaborative setting. Our results highlight the importance of objective measurement in the study of human behaviour, here enabling us to discern context specific, gender-based differences in interaction style.


  • Onnela JP, Waber BN, Pentland A, Schnorf S, Lazer D. 2014. Using sociometers to quantify social interaction patterns [Abstract]

Women gossip 2.5 times as much about friends and close acquaintances than men[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: This study examined sex differences in the quantity, targets, tone, and topics of gossip in the conversations of 76 male and 120 female college students. Contrary to popular beliefs, results indicated that the gossip of men and women contained similarities as well as differences. The data revealed that women spent more time gossiping than men and that women were much more likely than men to gossip about close friends and family members. However, no significant sex differences were uncovered regarding the derogatory tone of gossip and men and women were found to gossip about many of the same topics.


  • Levin J, Arluke A. 1985. An exploratory analysis of sex differences in gossip [Abstract]

Women prefer to talk, men prefer to do things[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Two studies examined sex differences in the same-sex friendships of college men and women. In a questionnaire study, self-reports were obtained of number of friends and frequency of interaction, typical and preferred kinds of interactions with friends, and emotional intimacy. A role-play study provided more direct information about conversations between friends. Men and women did not differ in quantitative aspects of friendship such as number of friends or amount of time spent with friends, nor in the value placed on intimate friendships. However, clear sex differences were found in both studies in the nature of interactions with friends. Women showed emphasis on emotional sharing and talking; men emphasized activities and doing things together. Results are discussed in terms of life-cycle constraints on friendship, and the possibility of sex differences in standards for assessing intimacy in friendship is considered.


  • Caldwell MA, Peplau LA. 1982. Sex differences in same-sex friendship [Abstract]

Women are less cooperative towards their own sex than men in the iterated prisoner's dilemma[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: In the finite-horizon repeated Prisoner's Dilemma, a compelling backward induction argument shows that rational players will defect in every round, following the uniquely optimal Nash equilibrium path. It is frequently asserted that cooperation gradually declines when a Prisoner's Dilemma is repeated multiple times by the same players, but the evidence for this is unconvincing, and a classic experiment by Rapoport and Chammah in the 1960s reported that cooperation eventually recovers if the game is repeated hundreds of times. They also reported that men paired with men cooperate almost twice as frequently as women paired with women. Our conceptual replication with Prisoner's Dilemmas repeated over 300 rounds with no breaks, using more advanced, computerized methodology, revealed no decline in cooperation, apart from endgame effects in the last few rounds, and replicated the substantial gender difference, confirming, in the UK, a puzzling finding first reported in the US in the 1960s.

  • We investigated cooperation in the repeated Prisoner's Dilemma.
  • With stringent tests, we found no general decline over 300 rounds.
  • We confirmed an endgame effect as the known final round approaches.
  • We confirmed a puzzling gender difference: men cooperate much more than women.


  • Colman AM, Pulford BD, Krockow EM. 2018. Persistent cooperation and gender differences in repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games: Some things never change [Abstract]

Women are more likely to socially exclude others as early as age six[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Throughout their lives, women provide for their own and their children's and grandchildren's needs and thus must minimize their risk of incurring physical harm. Alliances with individuals who will assist them in attaining these goals increase their probability of survival and reproductive success. High status in the community enhances access to physical resources and valuable allies. Kin, a mate, and affines share a mother's genetic interests, whereas unrelated women constitute primary competitors. From early childhood onwards, girls compete using strategies that minimize the risk of retaliation and reduce the strength of other girls. Girls’ competitive strategies include avoiding direct interference with another girl's goals, disguising competition, competing overtly only from a position of high status in the community, enforcing equality within the female community and socially excluding other girls.


  • Benenson JF. 2013. The development of human female competition: Allies and adversaries [Abstract]

Women who engage in BDSM as 'submissives' have lower levels of empathy[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: The practice of bondage/discipline, dominance/submission, sadism/masochism (BDSM) sometimes is associated with giving and receiving pain. It remains unresolved how BDSM practitioners perceive the pain of other people. This study investigated whether and how the BDSM experience affects human empathy. Experiment 1 measured trait empathy and subjective empathic responses in BDSM practitioners and control respondents. The results revealed lower trait empathy scores and subjective pain intensity ratings in the female submissive group (Subs) compared to controls. Experiment 2 measured participants’ neural responses to others’ suffering by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) from female Subs and controls while viewing painful and neutral expressions. We found that the differential amplitudes between painful and neutral expressions in the frontal N1 (92–112 ms), frontal P2 (132–172 ms) and central late LPP (700–1000 ms) were reduced in the submissive group versus the control group. These findings suggest that being in the submissive role during BDSM practice weakens female individuals’ empathic responses to others’ suffering at both the behavioral and neural levels.

  • Involving in BDSM relationships and practices did not necessarily result in weaken empathy abilities.
  • Female submissives’ empathic responses were weakened at both behavioral/psychological and neural levels.
  • Both early automatic empathic responses and late controlled processes were modulated by BDSM experiences in the female subs.


  • Luo S, Zhang X. 2018. Empathy in female submissive BDSM practitioners [Abstract]


  • Taken together, these results suggest that being in a submissive role during BDSM practice influences female individuals more than males and that both their empathic abilities and subjective empathic responses are weaker than those of the control group.

Women have a greater anti-women bias in scientific peer review than men[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Even though women׳s position in academia has changed dramatically over the last few decades, there is still some evidence that when it comes to evaluation of scientific achievements, gender may play a significant role. Gender bias is particularly likely to take the form of statistical discrimination. In this study we sought to verify the hypothesis that researcher׳s gender affects evaluation of his or her work, especially in a field where women only represent a minority. Towards this end we asked a sample of subjects, mostly economics majors, to evaluate a paper written by mixed-gender couples, indicating that it was (co-)authored by a “female economist”, “male economist”, “young female economist” or “young male economist” or giving no information about the author at all. While age factor played no role, female authors appeared to be seen as less competent than males, in that subjects (being incentivized to give their best judgment) less often believed that their papers have been published. This effect did not interact strongly with the gender of the subject.


  • Krawczyk M, Smyk M. 2016. Author׳s gender affects rating of academic articles: Evidence from an incentivized, deception-free laboratory experiment [Abstract]

Women are interrupted the most by other women, not by men[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Forty participants (20 male) had 3-minute conversations with trained male and female communication partners in a repeated-measures, within-subject design. Eighty 3-minute conversations were transcribed and coded for dependent clauses, fillers, tag questions, intensive adverbs, negations, hedges, personal pronouns, self-references, justifiers, and interruptions. Results suggest no significant changes in language based on speaker gender. However, when speaking with a female, participants interrupted more and used more dependent clauses than when speaking with a male. There was no significant interaction to suggest that the language differences based on communication partner was specific to one gender group. These results are discussed in context of previous research, communication accommodation theory, and general process model for gendered language.


  • Hancock AB, Rubin BA. 2015. Influence of Communication Partner’s Gender on Language [Abstract]

Women are angrier in intrasexual conflicts than men and need more time for conflict resolution[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: The aim of the study was to investigate sex differences in proximate mechanisms that precede the termination of conflicts. In Study 1, we asked women and men to report their intensity of anger in response to hypothetical, common transgressions involving a same-sex roommate. Direct verbal and physical aggression elicited the highest-intensity anger for both sexes, although overall women reported more intense anger than men to all transgressions. In Study 2, we examined sex differences in subjective and physiological reactions to a conflict using a role-playing scenario. Following recall of a conflict involving direct aggression and role-playing a reaction to it, compared with men, women reported their anger would dissipate less quickly and they would take longer to reconcile. Women also exhibited increased heart rate, but little change in cortisol, whereas men exhibited little change in heart rate but increased cortisol production. We interpret the results as indicating that women are less prepared than men to resolve a conflict with a same-sex peer.


  • Benenson JF, Kuhn MN, Ryan PJ, Ferranti AJ, Blondin R, Shea M, Charpentier C, Thompson ME, Wrangham RW. 2014. Human Males Appear More Prepared Than Females to Resolve Conflicts with Same-Sex Peers [Abstract]

Hypergamy[edit | edit source]

Women lose mating opportunities with higher status, men gain mating opportunities[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Research has consistently shown that, compared to men, women are more cautious and selective and maintain greater marital aspirations in entering and maintaining sexual relationships. One explanation of this sex difference is that women have traditionally had inferior access to earning power and social status and consequently were forced to acquire socioeconomic status (SES) through their choice of marriage partners. A contrasting view is that this difference is a component of the basic sex difference identified in the Kinsey studies: Men are more likely than women to dissociate coitus from emotional attachment and to desire and seek coitus with a variety of partners. These two explanations were explored in open-ended interviews with matched samples of 20 male and 20 female medical students. The results were more consistent with the perspective of basic sex differences than with the differential resources explanation. Increasing female SES does not appear to eliminate or even substantially reduce this sex difference. Increasing SES tends to enlarge the pool of acceptable, available sexual and marital partners for men while it tends to reduce the pool for women. Increasing SES thus tends to have different effects on men and women and may cause sex differences in the tendency to associate coitus with emotional attachments and marital aspirations to be more, rather than less, apparent. Extensive case data with verbatim quotations are presented to reveal the emotions and desires underlying subjects' overt behavior. (Townsend)

Abstract from the paper: This paper reexamines the relationship between status and reproductive success (at the ultimate and proximate levels) using data on sex frequency and number of biological children from representative samples of the U.S. population. An ordered probit analysis of data from the 1989–2000 General Social Survey (GSS) shows that high-income men report greater frequency of sex than all others do. An OLS regression of data from the 1994 GSS shows that high-income men have more biological children than do low-income men and high-income women. Furthermore, more educated men have more biological children than do more educated women. Results also show that intelligence decreases the number of offspring and frequency of sex for both men and women. (Hopcroft)

Abstract from the paper: Much of human behavior results from a desire for social status. From an evolutionary perspective, answering the question of why we pursue status must consider how status affects reproduction, especially in nonindustrial societies with natural fertility. In a metaanalysis of 288 results from 33 nonindustrial populations, we find that status is significantly associated with men’s reproductive success, consistent with an evolved basis for status pursuit. Status hierarchies have changed dramatically throughout human history, yet we find that the association between status and reproductive success does not depend on subsistence category (foraging, horticulture, pastoralism, agriculture) or how status is measured. These findings suggest no significant increase in selection on status-enhancing traits with the domestication of plants and animals. (Christopher)

Abstract from the paper: This chapter discusses, from an evolutionary standpoint, crucial factors influencing human reproduction. It emphasizes the importance of social status and homogamy on the level of the individual and raises the question how genetics and also epigenetics may contribute to explain human mate choice and fertility patterns. The chapter discusses the differential association of status with fertility for men and women, evolutionary reasons for the prevalence of homogamy along cultural traits and considers, on the level of genetics, the interplay of inbreeding and outbreeding. The role of mutations due to paternal age for human mate choice is debated. Finally, the chapter discusses the effects of early life conditions on later reproduction and also the role of epigenetics as a potential underlying mechanism. It is concluded that an evolutionary perspective helps explain reproductive patterns in modern humans and may thus make a valuable contribution in the assessment of urgent contemporary problems. (Fieder)


85% of female medical students answered "As my status increases, my pool of acceptable partners decreases". In contrast, 90% of men stated their pool would increase.

  • Townsend JM. 1987. Sex differences in sexuality among medical students: Effects of increasing socioeconomic status [Abstract]

In a large US sample, high status men (especially of lower IQ) have ~18% more children compared to low status men, whereas high status women have ~40% fewer children compared to low status women.

  • Hopcroft RL. 2006. Sex, status, and reproductive success in the contemporary United States [Abstract]

A similar effect has been found in 33 different countries.

  • Von Rueden CR, Jaeggi AV. 2016. Men's status and reproductive success in 33 nonindustrial societies: Effects of subsistence, marriage system, and reproductive strategy [Abstract]

A similar effect has also been found in pre-industrial societies.

  • Fieder M, Huber S. 2018. Evolution and human reproduction [Abstract]

Women (and men) pay more attention to high status men, not high status women[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Two studies tested the hypothesis that people attend preferentially to high status men (but not women). Participants overestimated the frequency of high status men in rapidly presented arrays (Experiment 1) and fixated their visual attention on high status men in an eye-tracking study (Experiment 2). Neither study showed any evidence of preferential attention to high status women, but there was evidence that physically attractive women captured attention. The results from both studies support evolutionary theories regarding differential prioritization of social status and physical attractiveness in men versus women. These findings illustrate how examination of early-in-the-stream social cognition can provide useful insights into the adapted mind.


  • These findings illustrate how examination of early-in-the-stream social cognition can provide useful insights into the adapted mind.


  • DeWall CN, Maner JK. 2008. High Status Men (but Not Women) Capture the Eye of the Beholder [Abstract]

Brazilian women's preference for wealthy men was unchanged over 30 years despite feminism[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Mate preferences provide unique windows into evolved mating psychology and extant cultural values. The current study used two research instruments—one ranking and one rating—to examine mate preferences in Brazil. We compared modern Brazilians (n = 1186) with a Brazilian sample studied three decades earlier, in 1984 (n = 630). Mate preferences for mutual attraction and love, kindness, and intelligence remained important and relatively invariant over time. Sex differences in mate preferences for cues to fertility (relative youth, physical attractiveness) and resources (earning capacity, financial prospects, social status) also remained relatively invariant over time. Several changes in mate preferences emerged over time for both men and women, including a stronger preference for mates who have good financial prospects and a dramatic decline in the desire for children. Discussion highlights limitations of the study, and stresses the importance of mate preferences as windows into evolved mating psychology and both the expression and reflection of cultural values.

  • Mate preferences for love, kindness, and intelligence remained relatively invariant over 30 years in Brazil.
  • Sex differences in preferences for youth, attractiveness, and resources remained robust over 30 years in Brazil.
  • Cultural changes centered on dramatic decrease in desire for children and increase in desire for financial resources. (Souza)

Abstract from the paper: Evolutionary psychologists have argued for evolved sex differences in human mate preferences (e.g., (Buss and Barnes Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50,559–570, 1986; Buss American Scientist 73,47–51, 1985, Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12, 1–49, 1989, 1994). Specifically, they have suggested that men and women place different values on physical appearance, fertility, and economic stability when they choose a long-term partner (e.g., Miller 2000; Buss and Schmitt Psychological Review 100, 204–232, 1993; Fisman et al. 2006; Sprecher et al. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 66, 1074–1080, 1994). In this short report, we replicated a seminal study that investigated preferences for potential marriage partners (Sprecher et al. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 66, 1074–1080, 1994) to assess if sex differences in mate preferences may have converged over time due to social change via a crowd-sourced sample (n = 522). The replication was largely successful and, thus, suggests stable sex differences in long-term mate preferences in line with an evolutionary framework. However, we also found evidence for narrowed sex differences for preferences with regard to ethnicity and education. Interestingly, while the original study found no sex difference in the preference for marrying the previously married, the current study showed that women were slightly more inclined than men to prefer a previously married partner. Therefore, these findings also suggest that social change and societal norms could make long-term mate preferences flexible and influence how they develop over time.


  • Souza AL, Conroy-Beam D, Buss DM. 2016. Mate preferences in Brazil: Evolved desires and cultural evolution over three decades [Abstract]
  • Bech-Sørensen J, Pollet TV. 2016. Sex Differences in Mate Preferences: a Replication Study, 20 Years Later [Abstract]

Stoicism[edit | edit source]

Women regard brave male war heroes as sexually attractive[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: We report three studies which test a sexual selection hypothesis for male war heroism. Based on evolutionary theories of mate choice we hypothesize that men signal their fitness through displaying heroism in combat. First, we report the results of an archival study on US-American soldiers who fought in World War II. We compare proxies for reproductive success between a control sample of 449 regular veterans and 123 surviving Medal of Honor recipients of WWII. Results suggest that the heroes sired more offspring than the regular veterans. Supporting a causal link between war heroism and mating success, we then report the results of two experimental studies (N = 92 and 340). We find evidence that female participants specifically regard men more sexually attractive if they are war heroes. This effect is absent for male participants judging female war heroes, suggesting that bravery in war is a gender specific signal. Finally, we discuss possible implications of our results.


  • Rusch H, Leunissen JM, van Vugt M. 2014. Historical and experimental evidence of sexual selection for war heroism [Abstract]

Health is a stronger predictor of marriage satisfaction for men than for women[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Men consistently report that they are healthier than women but have higher mortality rates. We hypothesized that men were sexually selected to present themselves as healthy to possible mates, according to predictions from health selection theory. The present study tested this theory by contrasting known influences of female mate choice with male’s reactions to a health problem (flu symptoms, reaction to vog (air pollution associated with volcanic emissions in the Hawaiian islands) or a headache). Participants viewed three sets of slides contrasting male facial symmetry, physique, and status with stoicism (defined as ignoring a health problem) and were asked to choose which male they preferred as a long-term or a short-term mate. Participants preferred stoic men who worked even though they were experiencing health problems as long-term mates, disregarding the male’s facial symmetry and physique. Status also significantly affected long-term mate choice. In short-term mate choice, participants shifted their preferences to symmetrical faces and mesomorphic bodies, signals of attractiveness, disregarding stoicism. In conclusion, our data provide support for health selection theory. Additionally, preventive health measures directed at men should recognize their reluctance to recognize minor health problems and focus on techniques that enhancemen’s perception of their health symptoms


  • Brown SG, Shirachi S, Zandbergen D. 2018. Female Choice and Male Stoicism [Abstract] [FullText]

Crime[edit | edit source]

Good looking people are less likely to be arrested or convicted[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Physical attractiveness has been known to act as a cue in determining perceptions of other individuals. Possession of a positive characteristic, such as attractiveness, results in a positive cognitive bias towards the individual. Similarly, possession of a negative characteristic, such as unattractiveness, results in the opposite effect. In addition to unattractiveness, the violation of social norms has been known to act as a cue for this negative bias. This experiment sought to examine how male facial attractiveness interacted with norm violation to alter females’ perceptions of males. Two male faces (attractive and unattractive) bearing similar features were paired with two scenarios of norm violation (high violation and low violation) while being rated on perceived personality characteristics. It was expected that halo/devil effects would occur based on facial attractiveness, and that norm violation would produce a devil effect in the men. An interaction effect between the two was also expected. Participants were 170 female college students. Results were analyzed using a repeated ANOVA and independent t tests. Findings show that a “double” devil effect occurred with the unattractive high violation condition. Norm violation also presented significant results, while facial attractiveness alone did not. Findings pose implications for online dating and jury deliberations. (Gore)

Abstract from the paper:


Lighter Sentences

  • Gibson JL, Gore JS. 2015. You’re OK Until You Misbehave: How Norm Violations Magnify the Attractiveness Devil Effect [Abstract]


  • Mazzella R, Feingold A. 1994. The Effects of Physical Attractiveness, Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Gender of Defendants and Victims on Judgments of Mock Jurors: A Meta‐Analysis [Abstract]

Observational study:

  • Stewart JE. 1980. Defendant's Attractiveness as a Factor in the Outcome of Criminal Trials: An Observational Study [Abstract]

Lighter Bail

  • Downs AC, Lyons PM. 1991. Natural Observations of the Links between Attractiveness and Initial Legal Judgments [Abstract]

Less likely to be arrested or convicted:

  • Beaver KM, Boccio C, Smith S, Ferguson CJ. 2019. Physical attractiveness and criminal justice processing: results from a longitudinal sample of youth and young adults [Abstract]

Ugly people are more likely to become criminals[edit | edit source]

Mocan and Tekin (2006) performed an analysis of outcomes from the Add Health (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health), a longitudinal study of US adolescents for the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), an American nonprofit research organization committed to unbiased economic research.

They found that there was a weak though significant connection between being physically unattractive and being drawn to a life of crime. This connection was not due to differences in socio-economic birth status between the unattractive and attractive adolescents. Their findings supported two possible explanations: first, that being unattractive reduces opportunities in the labor market, thus pushing ugly individuals to find other livelihoods, and second, that attractive people receive more positive reinforcement in the education system (such as greater sports and club participation and more positive peer and teacher interactions) which leads to them better learning the skills required to succeed later on.


  • Using data from three waves of Add Health we find that being very attractive reduces a young adult's (ages 18-26) propensity for criminal activity and being unattractive increases it for a number of crimes, ranging from burglary to selling drugs. A variety of tests demonstrate that this result is not because beauty is acting as a proxy for socio-economic status.
  • These results suggest two handicaps faced by unattractive individuals. First, a labor market penalty provides a direct incentive for unattractive individuals toward criminal activity. Second, the level of beauty in high school has an effect on criminal propensity 7-8 years later, which seems to be due to the impact of the level of beauty in high school on human capital formation.
  • Consistent with previous research (Hamermesh and Biddle 1994, Biddle and Hamermesh 1998), we find that in our data set beauty is positively related to wages. We also show that beauty is positively related to the scores received on an adult achievement test, which suggests that being an unattractive student in high school may have hindered human capital development -- possibly through teacher and peer interactions.
  • In case of males, unattractive individuals are about 1 percentage point more likely to commit robbery, and 1.7 percentage points more likely to sell drugs in comparison to average-looking males. Very attractive males are 4 percentage points less likely to sell drugs.


Most rampage killers are low status or experience poor relationship prospects[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Autogenic massacres are killings of two or more individuals in a single spree, motivated by personal problems or psychopathology (Mullen, Behavioral Sciences and the Law 2004, 22(3), 311–323). No attempts known to us have been made to explain autogenic massacres from an evolutionary psychological perspective. We sought to determine whether these massacres were likely committed by males who experienced status threats, as throughout human evolution threats to status and barriers to ascent would have had profound reproductive consequences for males due to female selectivity (Buss & Schmitt, Psychological Review 1993, 100, 204–232). We gathered available information about occupational, economic, and relationship statuses of perpetrators of autogenic massacres and the triggers of such murders. As predicted, typical perpetrators were low- or mid-status males with relatively low educational attainment and a history of relationship problems, and the trigger in most cases was a status loss or threat. Our evidence suggests that autogenic murderous rampages, though clearly psychopathological, may be rooted in part in male genetic preprogramming to defend status.


Race[edit | edit source]

Across Europe, for both genders combined, whites are most desired race online[edit | edit source]

To assess racial preferences in Europe, researches analyzed anonymized profile and preference information of users registered at the eDarling online dating site. In an agreement with the company, data was accessed for all users in September 2011. Researchers performed their analyses on a total pooled sample of 58,880 heterosexual members drawn from an original sample of 876,658 heterosexual site users.

When filling in their dating profiles, users were offered the same list of racial choices in all nine countries studied, both in terms of own racial background and preferred race for partner. The question regarding partner’s race asked, "Of which ethnicity (or origin) do you want the person you are searching for to be?"

The seven categories offered were: European, African, Asian, Arabic, Indian, Hispanic (Latin American), or other. The Indian and Asian categories were combined into a broader Asian category and the other category was excluded as it could not be clear what it represented.

Based on a multivariate logistic regression model, controlling for education, gender, age, religion, marital history, importance of partner’s race, long-term dating intentions, type of membership, and country, a clear racial hierarchy emerged similar to the American data from the Yahoo Personals study above, with only a different rank position for blacks.

The racial hierarchy of desirability in this study across Europe for both genders combined was established as:

  • White > Hispanic > Asian > Black > Middle Eastern

It should be noted that researchers did not provide a gendered breakdown of preferences. Asian women are consistently more desirable than Asian men and black men more than black women in other studies, for example, and thus the precise hierarchy of non-whites might be expected to change with gendered data.


  • A hierarchy of preferences emerges among both Europeans and minority groups. Europeans are the most preferred group and generally less willing to be matched with those from other races. In fact, unlike initially predicted, online daters of all racial backgrounds are more open to dating Europeans than their own group.
  • Hispanics and Asians hold intermediate rankings, and finally, Arabs and Africans are the least preferred.


  • Potarca G, Mills M. 2015. Racial Preferences in Online Dating across European Countries. European Sociological Review 31(3). [FullText]

Body[edit | edit source]

Most normal weight people are still overly fat[edit | edit source]


Misandry[edit | edit source]

Playful children are more likely to be deemed "disruptive" for it if they are boys[edit | edit source]


Female bullies often go unpunished, even when they engage in harsh physical bullying against boys[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Despite a large amount of research focusing on bullying and exclusion in secondary schools, there is far less research focusing on cross‐gender bullying and ‘popular’ students who experience bullying. This research provides an analysis of interactions between male and female students (aged 13–14) in a school in England. The data provides multiple examples, both in the form of observations and group interviews, of girls teasing, intimidating and bullying boys and other popular girls. The analysis also considers teachers’ reactions to this behaviour, highlighting that it is often unnoticed. This paper raises this as an area for concern and suggests that future research should explore this further, both gaining more in‐depth knowledge of female bullying and intimidation of boys and popular girls, and exploring ways of working with teachers and schools to support students.


  • Dytham S. 2018. The role of popular girls in bullying and intimidating boys and other popular girls in secondary school [Abstract]

Fathers are more attentive and care more for daughters than sons[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Multiple lines of research indicate that fathers often treat boys and girls differently in ways that impactchild outcomes. The complex picture that has emerged, however, is obscured by methodologicalchallenges inherent to the study of parental caregiving, and no studies to date have examined thepossibility that gender differences in observed real-world paternal behavior are related to differentialpaternal brain responses to male and female children. Here we compare fathers of daughters and fathersof sons in terms of naturalistically observed everyday caregiving behavior and neural responses to childpicture stimuli. Compared with fathers of sons, fathers of daughters were more attentively engaged withtheir daughters, sang more to their daughters, used more analytical language and language related tosadness and the body with their daughters, and had a stronger neural response to their daughter’s happyfacial expressions in areas of the brain important for reward and emotion regulation (medial and lateralorbitofrontal cortex [OFC]). In contrast, fathers of sons engaged in more rough and tumble play (RTP),used more achievement language with their sons, and had a stronger neural response to their son’s neutralfacial expressions in the medial OFC (mOFC). Whereas the mOFC response to happy faces wasnegatively related to RTP, the mOFC response to neutral faces was positively related to RTP, specificallyfor fathers of boys. These results indicate that real-world paternal behavior and brain function differ asa function of child gender.


  • Mascaro JS, Rentscher KE, Hackett PD, Mehl MR, Rilling JK. 2017. Child gender influences paternal behavior, language, and brain function [Abstract] [FullText]

Men are typically stereotyped as aggressors, and women are stereotyped as victims[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Moral typecasting is the tendency to categorize intentional perpetrators and suffering victims within moral interactions. We predicted a bias in typecasting, such that women are more easily typecast as victims and men as perpetrators. In Study 1, participants more readily assumed a harmed target was female than male, but especially when the targets were described as ‘victim’ and ‘perpetrator’. Study 2 participants typecast animated shapes perpetuating harm as male and victimized shapes as female. In Study 3, female victims were expected to experience more pain from an ambiguous joke and participants desired harsher punishments for male perpetrators. In Study 4, managers were perceived as less moral and fair when they fired a group of female (versus male) employees. Across four studies (N=1,319), harm was evaluated differently based on victim and perpetrator gender, suggesting a gender bias in moral typecasting.


  • Reynolds T, Howard C, Sjåstad H, Zhu L, Okimoto TG, Baumeister R, Aquino K, Kim J. 2019. Man Up and Take It: Gender Bias in Moral Typecasting [Abstract]

Boys put less effort into schoolwork, because effort is viewed as feminine[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Male students show less academic effort and lower academic achievement than do female students. The present study aimed to shed more light on the reasons for why male students show low academic effort despite the finding that this undermines their academic achievement. We explored whether students experience psychological benefits from showing low effort or “effortless” achievement in school and whether these benefits are greater for male than for female students. In two experimental vignette studies with independent samples of German ninth graders (N = 210) and teachers (N = 176), we systematically varied student targets’ gender, effort, and achievement and tested for effects on targets’ ascribed intelligence, popularity, likeability, masculinity, femininity, and gender-typicality. The “effortless” achiever was rated as more popular than students showing high effort. Teachers perceived the effortless achiever as the most intelligent target. Academic effort further increased students’ ratings of a low-achieving target’s likeability and students’ and teachers’ ratings of all targets’ femininity as well as decreased students’ ratings of all targets’ masculinity. Students and teachers perceived targets showing low (vs. high) effort as more similar to a typical boy, whereas teachers perceived targets showing high (vs. low) effort as more similar to a typical girl. Results indicate a need to understand the psychological benefits of low academic engagement, especially for male students, and to address the feminine stereotyping of (academic) effort.


  • Heyder A, Kessels U. 2017. Boys Don’t Work? On the Psychological Benefits of Showing Low Effort in High School [Abstract]

Looks[edit | edit source]

Children trust attractive adults more than unattractive adults[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper:

This is the finding of research by Igor Bascandziev from Clark University and Harvard University that will be published in the British Journal of Developmental Psychology.

"When learning about the world, children rely heavily on information provided to them by other people," explained Igor, "Previous studies have shown children can be influenced by a range of factors such as whether the adult was correct in the past or if they are familiar to them. Our study wanted to examine whether children would trust an attractive stranger over an unattractive stranger."

A total of thirty-two children aged between 4 and 5 years old were shown twelve photos of white women aged between eighteen and twenty-nine years old. The images had been previously selected, via a group of forty undergraduate students, from fifty-six original images. Only those images that were rated lowest (unattractive) and highest (attractive) were selected for the children's viewing.

Each child was presented with images of six novel objects and asked to name them. Whether the child guessed correctly or not the researcher suggested they ask one of two people. At this point the child was shown two of the photos (one attractive and one unattractive) and asked which person they thought would know the answer. After selecting a photo the child was then shown what each person in the photo said the object was and asked who did they think was right.

The results showed that more children, especially girls, selected the attractive face initially and both boys and girls were more likely to believe the answer given by the more attractive face.

Igor explained: "We see from the results that children and especially girls have more trust in attractive faces, even though there are no obvious reasons why people with more attractive faces would be more knowledgeable about object labels.

"The gender difference could relate to boys not paying as much attention to the initial presentation of the faces or other research has pointed to the fact that females have superior face perception.

"It would be interesting to see future research explore whether children would continue favouring the more attractive face even when they have evidence that the more attractive face is unreliable and the less attractive informant is a reliable informant."


  • Bascandziev I, Harris PL. 2014. In beauty we trust: Children prefer information from more attractive informants [Abstract] [News]

Good looking people are perceived to have a higher intellect and a better personality[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Demonstrates that the physical attractiveness stereotype established by studies of person perception is not as strong or general as suggested by the often-used summary phrase what is beautiful is good. Although Ss in these studies ascribed more favorable personality traits and more successful life outcomes to attractive than unattractive targets, the average magnitude of this beauty-is-good effect was moderate, and the strength of the effect varied considerably from study to study. Consistent with the authors' implicit personality theory framework, a substantial portion of this variation was explained by the specific content of the inferences that Ss were asked to make: The differences in Ss' perception of attractive and unattractive targets were largest for indexes of social competence; intermediate for potency, adjustment, and intellectual competence; and near zero for integrity and concern for others. The strength of the physical attractiveness stereotype also varied as a function of other attributes of the studies, including the presence of individuating information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Abstract from the paper: Meta-analysis was used to examine findings in 2 related areas: experimental research on the physical attractiveness stereotype and correlational studies of characteristics associated with physical attractiveness. The experimental literature found that physically attractive people were perceived as more sociable, dominant, sexually warm, mentally healthy, intelligent, and socially skilled than physically unattractive people. Yet, the correlational literature indicated generally trivial relationships between physical attractiveness and measures of personality and mental ability, although good-looking people were less lonely, less socially anxious, more popular, more socially skilled, and more sexually experienced than unattractive people. Self-ratings of physical attractiveness were positively correlated with a wider range of attributes than was actual physical attractiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)


  • Eagly AH, Ashmore RD, Makhijani MG, Longo LC. 1991. What Is Beautiful Is Good, But...: A Meta-Analytic Review of Research on the Physical Attractiveness Stereotype [Abstract]
  • Feingold A. 1992. Good-Looking People Are Not What We Think [Abstract]

Physically attractive individuals are more optimistic[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Physical attractiveness tends to inspire friendlier reactions and more positive evaluations from others, so that the beautiful are likelier to succeed across many kinds of endeavors. Does this history of success lead to a more optimistic, hopeful attitude? Evidence from the 2016 General Social Survey and the 1972 National Election Study suggests that it often does: those whom interviewers rate as better-looking tend to report higher expectations that life will turn out well for them, and show signs of greater upward social mobility. Since optimism is itself an important contributor to success in many social endeavors, these findings suggest an understudied mechanism by which beauty leads to better life outcomes, as well as a means by which social interactions may shape personal dispositions.


  • Urbatsch R. 2018. Things are looking up: Physical beauty, social mobility, and optimistic dispositions [Abstract]

Face[edit | edit source]

Women have a preference for more masculine faces in more stable and prosperous societies[edit | edit source]


  • While this presents costs in terms of reduced paternal investment, our findings suggest that when social and ecological conditions are more favourable, women high in sexual openness who report greater acceptance of short-term and less romantically committed relationships are potentially better able to realise preferences for more masculinise partners.
  • For the present, our findings suggest that in countries with more favourable social, ecological and economic conditions, wherein any costs of selecting less paternally investing masculine partners may be reduced, women’s preferences for facial masculinity are higher.


  • Marcinkowska UM, Rantala MJ, Lee AJ, Kozlov MV, Aavik T, Cai H, Contreras-Garduño J, David OA, Kaminski G, Li NP, Onyishi IE, Prasai K, Pazhoohi F, Prokop P, Cardozo SL, Sydney N, Taniguchi H, Krams I, Dixson BJ. 2019. Women’s preferences for men’s facial masculinity are strongest under favorable ecological conditions [Abstract]

Height[edit | edit source]

Women lie more about their heights in online dating than men[edit | edit source]

Voice[edit | edit source]

Lower vocal pitch predicts who will win an election[edit | edit source]


  • Klofstad CA, Anderson RC. 2018. Voice pitch predicts electability, but does not signal leadership ability. Evolution and Human Behavior. 39(3): 349-354. [Abstract]

Monogamy[edit | edit source]

Men die more under polygyny[edit | edit source]


Young men in polygynous societies are more prone to violence than those in monogamous ones[edit | edit source]


  • Drawing on Afrobarometer survey data, we explore the underlying mechanisms and find that young men who belong to polygynous groups feel that they are treated more unequally and are readier to use violence in comparison to those belonging to monogamous groups.
  • We have argued that, by definition, polygyny creates a social imbalance where a few, usually well-off, men marry many wives and many, usually poor, men marry late or never. Polygyny therefore systematically creates a surplus of young, poor, unmarried men: excess men.
  • While our analysis focuses on Africa, we believe that the operating principles and societal implications of polygyny are—with few exceptions—universally problematic as they create a cohort of society that has always been associated with trouble around the world: excess men.


  • Koos C, Neupert-Wentz C. 2019. Polygynous Neighbors, Excess Men, and Intergroup Conflict in Rural Africa [Abstract]

Serial monogamy increases reproductive success in men but not in women[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Evolutionary theory predicts that males seek more sexual partners than females because of their higher fitness benefits from such a reproductive strategy. Accordingly, variance in numbers of partners and offspring is expected to be greater and association between mating and reproductive success to be stronger in males. Studies testing key predictions of this hypothesis in humans are lacking. Using data of 3700 men and 4010 women living in contemporary United States, we examined sex differences in the variance of number of spouses and offspring and in the association between spouse number and number of offspring. The results suggested a stronger selective advantage of serial monogamy in men than in women. Variance in spouse and offspring number was, respectively, 5% and 10% higher in men. In addition, the association between mating and reproductive success was stronger in men, so that men with 3 or more consecutive spouses had 19% more children than men with only spouse, whereas spouse number beyond the first partner was not associated with number of children in women. When the sample was stratified by ethnic group, the sex differences were stronger among Black and Hispanic participants than among White participants.


Women with higher income expressed an even stronger preference for high-earning men[edit | edit source]


  • Women with higher income expressed an even stronger preference for high-earning men than did women who were less financially successful


  • Buss DM, Schmitt DP. 2019. Mate Preferences and Their Behavioral Manifestations [Abstract]

Cucks[edit | edit source]

22.6% of U.S Airmen discovered their wives infidelity after returning from a year-long deployment[edit | edit source]


  • Despite anecdotal reports of increased rates of infidelity during deployment, empirical findings are lacking. This study used a prospective design to examine the prevalence and risk factors of infidelity across the deployment cycle including a year-long deployment to Iraq.
  • The rate of sexual infidelity prior to deployment (21%) was commensurate with the lifetime rate of sexual involvement outside the marriage in representative community samples of men. Across the deployment period, the prevalence of sexual infidelity was strikingly high (22.6%) compared with annual community estimates (1.5-4%; Allen et al., 2005).
  • Balderrama-Durbin C, Stanton K, Snyder DK, Cigrang JA, Talcott GW, Slep AM, Heyman RE, Cassidy DG. 2017. The risk for marital infidelity across a year-long deployment [Abstract]

Women partnered to low income men are more prone to infidelity[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: The nature of extra-relational sex in societies with rapidly changing sexual mores and widespread commercial sex remains under-explored. The 2006 Sexuality Survey of China provides a national probability survey with data on 3,567 people 18-49 years old who were in a marital (89%) or dating/cohabiting (11%) relationship. In attitudes, extramarital sex was completely unacceptable to 74% of women and 60% of men and either somewhat or completely unacceptable to 95% of women and men. Most (77%) women wanted severe punishment of men's short-term commercial sex and women's jealousy was equally elevated by their primary partner's episodes of commercial and non-commercial sex. Nevertheless, the prevalence of infidelity during the last 12 months was 4.5% (women's non-commercial sex), 11.0% (men's non-commercial), and 5.5% (men's commercial), with each percent matching or exceeding the median for other countries. In multivariate equations for non-commercial infidelity, men's infidelity was significantly more responsive to sexual dissatisfaction with his primary partner while women's was more responsive to deficits in love. In commercial sex, men were uninfluenced by primary partner deficits in love, sexual satisfaction or oral sex-pursuing, it would seem, simply a greater variety of sexual partners. In a "trading up" pattern, women partnered with low income men had elevated infidelity. The minority of women reporting early masturbation and premarital sex were just as likely as men with these backgrounds to have elevated infidelity. The Chinese patterns provide ample material for deliberations on gender similarities and differences in extra-relational sex.


  • Zhang N, Parish WL, Huang Y, Pan S. 2012. Sexual infidelity in China: Prevalence and gender-specific correlates [Abstract]

Tinder[edit | edit source]

The Tinder economy has more inequality than 95.1% of all the world’s national economies.[edit | edit source]


Tinder users have higher levels of the 'dark triad' traits than non-users[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Tinder is the leading online dating application. This study (N = 271) explored the Dark Triad personality traits (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) and sociosexuality as correlates of Tinder use. The results revealed that Tinder users had higher scores on the Dark Triad traits and sociosexuality, compared to non-users. Also, Tinder users with higher scores on the Dark Triad traits and sociosexuality significantly showed greater motivation to use Tinder for short-term mating; however, there was no significant relation with Tinder use and motivation for long-term mating. This finding supports the idea that Tinder can be a new venue for people high on the Dark Triad to pursue their short-term mating strategies.


  • Sevi B. 2019. The Dark Side of Tinder: The Dark Triad of Personality as Correlates of Tinder Use [Abstract]

Politics[edit | edit source]

Leftists of both genders are less attractive than conservatives[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Physical attractiveness is an important social factor in our daily interactions. Scholars in social psychology provide evidence that attractiveness stereotypes and the “halo effect” are prominent in affecting the traits we attribute to others. However, the interest in attractiveness has not directly filtered down to questions of political behavior beyond candidates and elites. Utilizing measures of attractiveness across multiple surveys, we examine the relationship between attractiveness and political beliefs. Controlling for socioeconomic status, we find that more attractive individuals are more likely to report higher levels of political efficacy, identify as conservative, and identify as Republican. These findings suggest an additional mechanism for political socialization that has further implications for understanding how the body intertwines with the social nature of politics.


  • Peterson RD, Palmer CL. 2017. Effects of physical attractiveness on political beliefs [Abstract]

Right wing politicians are generally more attractive than left-wing ones[edit | edit source]


Physically weak men prefer socialism, physically strong men do not[edit | edit source]


Political extremists report having more sex[edit | edit source]


Conservatives have less distinct preferences regarding long and short-term partners [edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: When choosing a mate, humans favour genetic traits (attractiveness, high sex drive) for short-term relationships and parental traits (warmth, high status) for long-term relationships. These preferences serve to maximise fitness of future offspring. But this model neglects the role of social norms in shaping evolved mating strategies. For example, in conservative cultures, individuals are likely to face costs such as punishment for short-term mating. Here we show that conservatives over-perceive some mates' suitability as long-term partners. Study 1 found that conservatives were less likely to use a short-term strategy that was distinctive from their long-term strategy. Study 2 showed that conservatives over-perceived hypothetical mates as long-term investing partners, despite their lack of commitment-compatible traits. Conservatism was measured at the regional- (India, USA, UK) and individual-level. Our results demonstrate how social norms may bias behaviour. We anticipate our findings to be a starting point for more sophisticated models, drawing on developments from evolutionary and social psychology.


  • Muggleton NK, Fincher CL. 2018. You're not my type: Do conservatives have a bias for seeing long-term mates? [Abstract]

Political conservatism may be mediated by a more monogamous mating strategy[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Multiple recent studies report that measures of pathogen avoidance (e.g., disgust sensitivity) correlate with political ideology. This relationship has been interpreted as suggesting that certain political views (specifically, those views that are categorized as socially conservative) function to mitigate the pathogen threats posed either by intergroup interactions or by departures from traditional societal norms, which sometimes evolve culturally for anti-pathogen functions. We propose and test the alternative hypothesis that pathogen avoidance relates to conservatism indirectly via sexual strategies (e.g., relatively monogamous versus relatively promiscuous). Specifically, we argue that individuals who are more invested in avoiding pathogens follow a more monogamous mating strategy to mitigate against pathogens transmitted during sexual contact, and individuals following a more monogamous mating strategy adopt socially conservative political ideologies to support their reproductive interests. Results from three studies (N's = 819, 238, and 248) using multiple measures of pathogen avoidance, sexual strategies, and ideology support this account, with sexual strategies fully mediating the relationship between measures of pathogen avoidance and conservatism in each study.


  • Tybur JM, Inbar Y, Güler E, Molho C. 2015. Is the relationship between pathogen avoidance and ideological conservatism explained by sexual strategies? [Abstract]

Sex[edit | edit source]

Sex improves health in numerous ways[edit | edit source]


Sluts[edit | edit source]

Promiscuous females have a stronger preference for more physically masculine males[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: Sociosexual orientation reflects individual differences in openness to short-term sexual relationships. We predicted that women with less restricted sociosexuality would be differentially attracted to highly masculinized male faces and bodies. In 2 studies, we investigated preference for male masculinization as a function of female sociosexuality. In Study 1, 40 female university students rated the attractiveness of pictures of male faces and somatotypes differing in masculinization level. All women preferred the faces with average levels of masculinity and the mesomorph somatotype; however, women with less restricted sociosexuality found the faces of men more attractive in general and showed relatively greater preference for masculinized bodies than did women with more restricted sociosexuality. In Study 2, 56 women met with 2 equally attractive male confederates, 1 highly masculinized and 1 less masculinized, in a "speed dating" scenario. After each date, women indicated their interest in each man for short-term and long-term relationships via questionnaire. In this more naturalistic context, sociosexuality was related to an increased interest for the more highly masculinized man in the context of short-term dating. Female sociosexuality appears to be related to preferences for higher levels of male masculinization.


  • Provost MP, Kormos C, Kosakoski G, Quinsey VL. 2006. Sociosexuality in women and preference for facial masculinization and somatotype in men [Abstract]

Health[edit | edit source]

Both voluntary and involuntary celibacy are related to poorer mental health[edit | edit source]

Abstract from the paper: The present study tested the hypothesis that single young adults who perceive their singlehood as voluntary would report a higher level of positive mental health (i.e., emotional, psychological and social well-being), lower levels of mental health illness (i.e., somatic symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction, severe depression) and romantic loneliness in comparison to young adults who perceive their singlehood as involuntary. This paper also investigated whether romantic loneliness mediates the relationship between voluntary and involuntary singlehood, positive mental health, and mental health illness. The study sample included 151 participants (86 females and 65 males) aged 20-26 (M = 22.48, SD = 2.01) from Poland. The main findings were that voluntarily single young adults reported a lower level of romantic loneliness compared to involuntarily single young adults. The two groups differed neither in regard to positive mental health nor in regard to mental health problems. In addition, gender differences were observed solely in the domain of romantic loneliness, with women reporting greater romantic loneliness than men. The mediation analysis revealed that romantic loneliness does not mediate the relationship between voluntary and involuntary singlehood, positive mental health, and mental health illness. Voluntary and involuntary singlehood was predictive of somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, severe depression, and romantic loneliness.


  • The main findings were that voluntarily single young adults reported a lower level of romantic loneliness compared to involuntarily single young adults. The two groups differed neither in regard to positive mental health nor in regard to mental health problems.
  • The mediation analysis revealed that romantic loneliness does not mediate the relationship between voluntary and involuntary singlehood, positive mental health, and mental health illness. Voluntary and involuntary singlehood was predictive of somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, severe depression, and romantic loneliness.


  • Adamczyk K. 2017. Voluntary and Involuntary Singlehood and Young Adults’ Mental Health: an Investigation of Mediating Role of Romantic Loneliness [Abstract]

ItsOver[edit | edit source]

Loneliness and mental health problems are rising for both genders[edit | edit source]


Miscellaneous[edit | edit source]