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A genetic '''mutation''' occurs when mistakes are made during copying/[[reproductive success|reproduction]] of DNA and/or chromosomes.
Mutations may be bad for the organismbeneficial, or neutral, or benefit deleterious (bad) for the organism. The majority of mutations are have no significant effect (neutral for the organism).<ref></ref> Mutations are unavoidable and they are necessary for evolution to work at all. Mutations bring new Evolution works by trying out mutated phenotypes into the environment and for environmental and [[sexual selection]] to determine which phenotypes will be prevalent in future generations and which mutations will become fixed (meaning highly prevalent in the gene pool). Thus mutations are the drivers of evolution. Older parents produce more mutated offspring.<ref></ref> There is also evidence that the mutation rate is much higher in human males (up to 6 times higher), which has also been found in other species such as birds.<ref></ref><ref></ref> This has lead to a hypothesis of evolution being largely driven by mutations in the male germline. This finding is heavily contested however.
== Kinds of mutations that can occur ==


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