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{{Quote|By the 1890’s several studies had been conducted to demonstrate that variability was indeed more characteristic of males...The biological evidence overwhelmingly favored males as the more variable sex.|Havelock Ellis}}
Modern studies confirm men are more variable than women in intelligence,<ref>journal|author1=MachinS, S. |author2=Pekkarinen, T. |title=2008. ''Global Sex Differences in Test Score Variability|journal=.'' Science|year=2008|volume=. Vol. 322|pmid=, issue 5906. PMID 19039123|pages=. Pp. 1331–2|[[https://doi=.org/10.1126/science.1162573|issue=5906}}Abstract]]</ref><ref>journal|first =Larry V. | last = Hedges |author2=Nowell, Amy | title=Sex Differences in Mental Test Scores, Variability, and Numbers of High-Scoring Individuals | journal=Science| year=1995 | volume=269 | pages=41–45 | doi=10.1126/science.7604277|pmid =7604277|issue =5220 | bibcode=1995Sci...269...41H</ref>
mathematical ability and visuospacial ability,<ref>Halpern, Diane F. et all. "The Science of Sex Differences in Science and Mathematics." Psychological Science in the Public Interest. Volume: 8 issue: 1, page(s): 1-51, Issue published: August 1, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-1006.2007.00032.x. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1111/j.1529-1006.2007.00032.x</ref><ref>Lindberg, Sara M.,Hyde, Janet Shibley,Petersen, Jennifer L.,Linn, Marcia C. "New trends in gender and mathematics performance: A meta-analysis." Psychological Bulletin, Vol 136(6), Nov 2010, 1123-1135. http://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fa0021276.</ref>
and science and reading ability.<ref>journal |last1=Feingold |first1=A. |title=Gender differences in variability in intellectual abilities: A cross-cultural perspective |journal=Sex Roles |date=1994 |volume=30 |issue=1–2 |pages=81–92 |doi=10.1007/BF01420741</ref>
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