Difference between revisions of "Scientific Blackpill"
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The [[Blackpill]] is fundamentally about understanding the objective truth about human nature, sexuality, and female mate selection. Science provides the best methods by which we can do so.
The [[Blackpill]] is fundamentally about understanding the objective truth about human nature, sexuality, and female mate selection. Science provides the best methods by which we can do so. Although the truth can be uncomfortable at times, it is ultimately more valuable than indulging in wishful thinking. This page summarizes some of the key scientific literature which can help us understand the unvarnished nature of male-female sexual and relationship dynamics.
Although the truth can be uncomfortable at times, it is ultimately more valuable than indulging in wishful thinking. This page summarizes some of the key scientific literature which can help us understand the unvarnished nature of male-female sexual and relationship dynamics.
The information here is not a matter of "opinion" or "belief" but rather proven scientific fact. It is not meant to push any particular social or political agenda, but rather to educate about human nature without bias.
The information here is not a matter of "opinion" or "belief" but rather proven scientific fact. It is not meant to push any particular social or political agenda, but rather to educate about human nature without bias.
Revision as of 17:49, 20 July 2019
The Blackpill is fundamentally about understanding the objective truth about human nature, sexuality, and female mate selection. Science provides the best methods by which we can do so. Although the truth can be uncomfortable at times, it is ultimately more valuable than indulging in wishful thinking. This page summarizes some of the key scientific literature which can help us understand the unvarnished nature of male-female sexual and relationship dynamics.
The information here is not a matter of "opinion" or "belief" but rather proven scientific fact. It is not meant to push any particular social or political agenda, but rather to educate about human nature without bias.
- 1 Personality
- 1.1 Women are attracted to the Dark Triad - narcissism, manipulativeness, & psychopathy
- 1.2 Women are the largest consumers of porn where women are violently raped and abused
- 1.3 62% of women have fantasies about rape and other forced sex acts
- 1.4 Women are drawn more than men to nonfiction stories of rape, murder, and serial killers
- 1.5 Childhood bullies experience greater sexual success than non-bullies
- 1.6 Men who exhibit antisocial behaviors reproduce more successfully
- 1.7 39% of hospitalized male psychopaths had consensual sex with female mental health staff
- 1.8 More than half of prison staff sexual misconduct involves female guards/staff
- 1.9 Male gang members have dramatically more female sexual partners
- 1.10 Male serial killers are frequently inundated by women's love letters in prisons
- 1.11 Men are attracted to "nice" women, but women are not attracted to "nice" men
- 1.12 Women desiring marriage and commitment are more attracted to narcissistic men
- 1.13 Female narcissism reduces marital quality for men, but male narcissism does not for women
- 1.14 Teenage boys with ADHD have double the amount of sexual partners vs. 'normal' teens
- 1.15 Sexy men are considered "funnier", but funny men are not considered "sexier"
- 1.16 Higher IQ men are more likely to remain virgins longer
- 2 Mental
- 2.1 69% of high functioning autistic adolescents want relationships, but almost none succeed
- 2.2 44.6% of high functioning adult autistic men remain virgins, despite high sex/relationship drive
- 2.3 Normal people are less willing to interact with autists and find them less physically attractive
- 2.4 Autistic men have 10 times as many suicidal thoughts as normal men
- 3 Race
- 3.1 Women are more racist in online dating, and 92-95% with a "preference" exclude any ethnic men
- 3.2 Women are more racist than men in speed dating, and find Asian men least physically attractive
- 3.3 White men get 11-14 times as much interest from women on Tinder vs. equivalent Asian men
- 3.4 Being an Asian male in the USA is a primary predictor of 'never being kissed'
- 3.5 Asian women marry interracially more than twice as often as Asian men
- 3.6 Asian men have half the relationships as white men due to women's "racial hierarchy"
- 3.7 Whiter, golden, & rosier (ie. Caucasian) skin is interpreted as healthier and more attractive
- 3.8 An Asian face is more "similar to that of an infant" than other races
- 4 Looks (Life)
- 4.1 Beauty is objective and measurable in the brain
- 4.2 People broadly agree on who is good looking or not, and it affects every aspect of life
- 4.3 It takes less than one second for people to accurately judge beauty
- 4.4 Babies can easily differentiate between attractive and unattractive faces
- 4.5 Parents treat attractive children better than ugly children
- 4.6 Good looking people are more often presumed innocent and given lighter sentences/bail
- 4.7 Children trust attractive adults more than unattractive adults
- 4.8 Physical attractiveness in adolescence predicts better socioeconomic status in adulthood
- 4.9 Physically attractive individuals are more likely to believe in a 'just world'
- 5 Looks (Love)
- 5.1 Women feel sexual disgust when shown unattractive men
- 5.2 70% of women would openly avoid a man solely because of his looks
- 5.3 Love at first sight can be predicted by physical attractiveness
- 5.4 Looks are most important to women in speed dating
- 5.5 Looks are most important to women in video dating
- 5.6 Looks are most important to women in blind dating
- 5.7 It is Looks > Personality > Money for both genders, but women lie more about it
- 5.8 Your looks define perception of your personality in online dating
- 5.9 A man's personality only matters to a woman if he meets her basic looks cutoff first
- 5.10 Being unattractive reduces men's chances of finding partners, but not women's
- 5.11 'Very unattractive' women are more likely to be married than other women
- 5.12 Women are less likely to use a condom with a more attractive male partner
- 5.13 A man's masculinity and physical attractiveness predicts a woman's chance of orgasm
- 5.14 A man's physical attractiveness to other women predicts his partner's chance of orgasm
- 5.15 A man's physical attractiveness predicts how long he waits before a woman will allow sex
- 6 Face
- 6.1 Men with dominant, aggressive faces (high FWHR) are preferred for short term relationships
- 6.2 High FWHR men express greater psychopathy, aggression, cheating, and exploitative behavior
- 6.3 Male facial phenotype determines dating perception and success
- 6.4 Teenage boys with 'dominant' facial features have sex earlier
- 7 Money
- 7.1 A man having the "correct" race, height, and face is worth millions of dollars to women
- 7.2 23-33% of women intentionally mislead men they are not interested in for free meals
- 7.3 Women orgasm more when having sex with rich men
- 7.4 Men with much lower incomes then their wives are more then twice as likely to not have sex
- 7.5 Photoshopping a man into a luxury apartment made women rate him as 30% more attractive
- 8 Height
- 8.1 A man's dating pool is set by his height; >94% of women will reject a man for being "too short"
- 8.2 Women are happiest with their partner's heights when they are 8.24" inches taller then them
- 8.3 Short men have twice the suicide rate of tall men
- 8.4 Taller men experience a better quality of life in almost every respect
- 8.5 Women lie more about their heights in online dating than men
- 9 Body
- 9.1 36.4% of US male online daters are now resorting to anabolic steroids & bulimia to compete
- 9.2 All women find the bodies of "strong looking men" more attractive than those with weaker bodies
- 9.3 Facial attractiveness contributes more to overall attractiveness then body, particularly in men
- 9.4 The most attractive BMI for men is 24.5 and for women 17-20 as it is most youthful
- 9.5 Men prefer low waist-hip ratios in women as they signal youth
- 9.6 Even congenitally blind men prefer a low waist-hip ratio in women
- 10 Penis
- 11 Voice
- 12 Age
- 12.1 It is normal for healthy men to find pubescent & prepubescent females sexually arousing
- 12.2 Men sexually prefer young women throughout life, while women prefer matched-age men
- 12.3 Women age facially at 2-3 times the rate of men
- 12.4 Men's desirability to women online peaks at 50, while women's peaks at 18 and then falls rapidly
- 12.5 Younger female prostitutes are in higher demand and charge more, across numerous cultures
- 13 Hypergamy
- 13.1 Women rate 80% of men as "below average"
- 13.2 The top 10% of men get 58% of women's likes in online dating
- 13.3 The top 5-20% of men (ie. "Chads") are now having more sex than ever before
- 13.4 Average women receive 20 times as many matches as average men on Tinder
- 13.5 Women are more attracted to men who are already in relationships than single men
- 13.6 Women are prone to instability when they are more attractive than their male partner
- 13.7 Before 'enforced monogamy', 2-to-17x as many women as men successfully reproduced
- 14 Cucks
- 14.1 Women name the wrong man as the "father" for between 0.8% and 30% of all childbirths
- 14.2 Women rapidly lose interest in sex once in a stable relationship or living with a man
- 14.3 The more women love their husbands, the less likely they are to initiate sex
- 14.4 Women initiate 69% of divorces
- 14.5 Vegetarian men are less attractive, likable, and masculine to women than omnivorous men
- 15 Sluts
- 15.1 Higher partner count reduces marital success more for women than for men
- 15.2 Promiscuous women are more incompetent, cold, and unstable, according to women
- 15.3 Women 'dehumanize' and act more aggressively towards promiscuous women
- 15.4 Women write 45-61.3% of all "misogynistic" tweets on Twitter about female promiscuity
- 15.5 Women with 5+ lifetime sexual partners have a >21.8% chance of carrying genital herpes
- 15.6 Women sexualize themselves online to attract high status mates
- 15.7 Women are half as likely as men to be very satisfied by a one night stand
- 15.8 Women feel more "entitlement" to men's bodies for sexual pleasure than vice versa
- 16 MeToo
- 16.1 28% of young women now consider men even winking at them to be sexual harassment
- 16.2 Women's definition of 'harassment' in online dating depends on the attractiveness of the man
- 16.3 The attractiveness of a male 'harasser' determines if the experience is enjoyable or traumatic
- 16.4 Attractiveness determines perceptions of guilt or innocence in cases of sexual harassment
- 16.5 Men & especially ugly men are considered inherently "creepier" than women
- 16.6 Men are equally likely as women to be victims of violent crime
- 16.7 More men are raped in the USA every year than women
- 16.8 Any sex a woman has after drinking alcohol can be defined as rape by a man under US law
- 16.9 Women permit 'creepy' behavior from attractive but not unattractive men due to the 'horn effect'
- 16.10 More teenage boys are victims of 'partner directed violence' then teenage girls
- 17 Health
- 17.1 Sex is the most pleasurable, joyous, and meaningful human experience
- 17.2 Loneliness is as deadly as obesity
- 17.3 Sex improves health in numerous ways
- 17.4 Mating performance is significantly related to happiness and life satisfaction
- 17.5 Women are happier being single than men
- 17.6 Being single is a greater risk factor for developing depression in men than in women
- 17.7 People that are married are 2.4x more likely to recover early from clinical depression
- 17.8 The brain reacts to rejection in the same manner as physical pain
- 17.9 Being shown a picture of a romantic partner results in higher pain tolerance
- 17.10 Women prefer stoic men who downplay their health problems in a long-term relationship
- 18 ItsOver
- 18.1 Celibacy in young unmarried US men is now 28% and rising, particularly affecting ethnic men
- 18.2 42% of men and 44% of women 18-35 years old and unmarried in Japan are now virgins
- 18.3 The number of high school students who date is plummeting
- 18.4 Age of first sex is rising in USA for both genders
- 18.5 Online services are the primary way people meet for relationships
- 18.6 Online dating is dominated by men, only 21%-34% of users are female
- 18.7 Online dating users have lower self-esteem
- 18.8 Winners in a rigged game will consider the game fair as long as they keep winning
- 18.9 Men are more likely than women to commit suicide
- 18.10 Loneliness and suicide rates are rising for both genders
- 18.11 Incel forums are disproportionately populated by disabled, autistic, and ethnic men
Women are attracted to the Dark Triad - narcissism, manipulativeness, & psychopathy
The dark triad is defined as: Narcissism, Manipulativeness, & Psychopathy. The "Dirty Dozen" is a scoring tool for quickly quantifying the Dark Triad:
- I tend to manipulate others to get my way.
- I tend to lack remorse.
- I tend to want others to admire me.
- I tend to be unconcerned with the morality of my actions.
- I have used deceit or lied to get my way.
- I tend to be callous or insensitive.
- I have used flattery to get my way.
- I tend to seek prestige or status.
- I tend to be cynical.
- I tend to exploit others toward my own end.
- I tend to expect special favors from others.
- I want others to pay attention to me.
Women were presented with male characters of varying degrees of Dark Triad personality. Physicality was held constant. Men with Dark Triad traits were dramatically more attractive to women compared to control characters who lacked these traits (with 99.9% statistical certainty). Furthermore, the attractiveness of these Dark Traits was not explained by other characteristics like extroversion.
Thus it seems apparent that while personality does matter to women, it does not matter in the ways they claim. Contrary to popular claims that women want a "nice, caring guy," in actual fact, they are most sexually attracted and aroused by narcissistic, manipulative, and psychopathic men.
This likely has a basis in evolutionary biology, as Dark Triad traits may have helped provide a competitive edge to men in difficult times, for example, by allowing a man to kill others for resources. Another possible explanation is that violent, callous or narcissistic behavior is an Honest Signal of exceptionally good erotic capital (i.e good looks) high social status or financial capital, as such a person who possesses these traits can 'get away' with behaving in such a manner.
- To explore the attractiveness of the DT personality to the other sex, 128 women rated created (male) characters designed to capture high DT facets of personality or a control personality.
- Physicality was held constant.
- Women rated the high DT character as significantly more attractive.
- Psychopathic traits (lack of morality; interpersonal hostility) are beneficial to a short-term strategy and are correlated with unrestricted pattern of sexual behaviour.
- The results of our study demonstrate that the Dark Triad male personality is attractive to women and this effect is not mediated by these men’s greater perceived Extraversion or Neuroticism.
- Cartera GL, Campbell AC, Muncer S. The Dark Triad personality: Attractiveness to women. Personality and Individual Differences. Volume 56, January 2014, Pages 57-61.
Women are the largest consumers of porn where women are violently raped and abused
Dr. Seth Stephens-Davidowitz, a former Google data scientist, was given complete access to PornHub's search and views data. He found that women were more than twice as likely as men to search for videos where women are abused or forced to participate in nonconsensual sex. Women preferred videos with tags like "painful anal crying", "public disgrace", "extreme brutal gangbang", "forced", or "rape".
25% of all straight porn searches by women were for videos featuring violence against women.
- A quarter of straight porn searches by women are for videos featuring violence against their own sex.
- Five percent of searches by women are for content portraying nonconsensual sex.
- Search rates for these more extreme types of sexual content are at least twice as common among women than men.
- If there is a genre of porn in which violence is perpetrated against a woman, analysis of the data shows that it almost always appeals disproportionately to women.
62% of women have fantasies about rape and other forced sex acts
A team of researchers from the University of North Texas and University of Notre Dame played 355 young women a rape fantasy over headphones to investigate how aroused they became:
The tape's material tells the tale of a male protagonist who is strongly attracted to the female character. He expresses a desire for sex with her, but she's clearly unresponsive. He attempts to convince her, without success, and she continues to refuse his advances. The male character then overpowers and rapes her. She resists throughout, and at no time gives consent. However, as the man is attractive to her and provides erotic stimulation, she does experience gratification from the forced sex.
In questioning following this, researchers found that overall, 62% of participants reported having a rape fantasy of some type.
Of the women who reported having the most common rape fantasy ("being overpowered or forced by a man to surrender sexually against my will"), 40% had it at least once a month and 20% had it at least once a week.
|Forced/Rape Sex Act||Women With Fantasy|
|Any forced/rape sex act||62%|
|Forced sex by a man||52%|
|Being raped by a man||32%|
|Forced oral sex by a man||28%|
|Forced anal sex||16%|
|Forced sex by a woman||17%|
|Being raped by a woman||9%|
|Forced oral sex by a woman||9%|
Women are drawn more than men to nonfiction stories of rape, murder, and serial killers
Women have a greater preference for stories of true crime than men. To evaluate the degree of this preference, researchers analyzed gender proportions of reviews on Amazon for different genres including true crime and war. They found 70% of true crime reviewers were female, while 82% of war reviewers were male, despite an overall relatively even distribution of male and female reviewers on the site in general.
The suggested that the primary reasons women might be interested in these books is for "survival tips" to avoid becoming victims themselves. Associations were found which may suggest this is in part a motivation, but these were very weak. Women's responses on evaluation of how much their reading was for "safety" were not very different from men's, and were greatly inadequate to explain the dramatic gender difference in preference for this material.
They did not attempt to evaluate to what extent female preference for these types of stories relate to other evidence such as that women are more attracted to sociopathic men, men with criminal histories have more consensual female partners, male serial killers are often inundated with female love letters (hybristophilia), women have a disproportionate preference for pornography featuring violence against women, and that most women admit to harboring "rape fantasies".
- More women than men reviewed books in the true crime genre (70% vs. 30%), w2(1, N ¼ 306) ¼ 22.08, p < .001.
- More men than women reviewed books in the war genre (82% vs. 18%), w2(1, N ¼ 1,263) ¼ 520.76, p < .001.
- 95% of the reviews in both the true crime and war categories were positive.
- When considering stories with violent content, women are drawn to true crime stories more so than are men.
Childhood bullies experience greater sexual success than non-bullies
An article describing two studies conducted by Volk et al. (2015) concluded that "taken together, results from the present study offer mixed, but generally positive, support for our hypothesis that bullying is an evolutionarily adaptive behavior" and noted that "The links between bullying and dating/sexual outcomes are (for the most part) not simply a function of common variance with attractiveness and age or sex, although those variables do play a role in dating and sexual behavior" therefore bullying increased adolescent males mating success independent of other factors like looks, social desirability, etc. The authors advised that "In the meantime, bullying research and interventions should be increasingly cognizant of the fact that bullying may indeed be, at least in part, due to evolved mental adaptations that predispose some individuals to harm others to obtain personal goals. These goals may go beyond social dominance and extend specifically toward obtaining sexual partners."
Another study by Dane et al.(2017) found that "higher extraversion and higher bullying perpetration significantly predicted having had sex" (among the adolescent participants in the study, albeit relying on self-reported data) and "number of sexual partners was significantly positively correlated with bullying ... in both samples" (correlation of r=.34 with bullying and number of sexual partners among older adolescents).
Thus it seems apparent that a tendency towards bullying is seen as an attractive trait by a significant number of women(at least adolescent girls), and this may even be independent of the traits such a tendency displays (i.e 'dark triad' traits, higher level of social dominance.)
A study conducted in the United Kingdom on behalf of the Society for Research in Child Development by Jaffee et al. (2003) using 'data from an epidemiological sample of 1,116 5-year-old twin pairs and their parents', remarked the following: "Second, despite the fact that fathers who engage in high levels of antisocial behavior make up a small proportion of fathers overall, they are responsible for a disproportionate number of births. For example, Moffitt and colleagues (2002) found that although men who engaged in high levels of antisocial behavior constituted only 10% of a birth cohort, they accounted for 27% of the babies fathered by the time the men were age 26".
39% of hospitalized male psychopaths had consensual sex with female mental health staff
Carl B. Gacono, PhD et al. (1995) published a small study for the The Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law comparing "select behavior indices between hospitalized insanity acquittees (N = 18) and hospitalized insanity acquittees who successfully malingered (N =18)". The study authors called the malingerers 'severe psychopaths'.
They found that these severe psychopaths were so likely to have consensual sexual relations with female staff, that in fact 39% had such consensual relations with female mental health staff when this was properly evaluated.
Behavioural infractions committed by control group and malingerers 'severe psychopaths'.
|Comparison Subjects||Severe Psychopaths|
|Specialized treatment plan||0%||35%|
|Sex/marriage with female staff||0%||39%|
|Drug dealing within institution||0%||44%|
- The malingerers were significantly more likely to have a history of murder or rape, carry a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder or sexual sadism, and produce greater PCL-R factor 1, factor 2, and total scores than insanity acquittees who did not malinger.
- The malingerers were also significantly more likely to be verbally or physically assaultive, require specialized treatment plans to control their aggression, have sexual relations with female staff, 39% had such consensual relations with female mental health staff, deal drugs, and be considered an escape risk within the forensic hospital.
- https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/vio.2015.0036 (Case studies recording several similar incidents written by Matthew H. Logan PhD a 'correctional psychologist working in the prison system'.
More than half of prison staff sexual misconduct involves female guards/staff
According to US prison guidelines, "staff sexual misconduct" includes any seemingly consensual act or behavior of a sexual nature directed toward an inmate by staff, including romantic relationships. Such acts include intentional touching of the genitalia, anus, groin, breast, inner thigh, or buttocks with the intent to abuse, arouse, or gratify sexual desire; completed, attempted, threatened, or requested sexual acts; and occurrences of indecent exposure, invasion of privacy, or staff voyeurism for sexual gratification.
This is differentiated form "nonconsensual sexual acts" and "abusive sexual acts" which are considered in a different manner.
A 2014 US prison audit found that 54% of all incidents of staff sexual misconduct (ie. consensual sexual relationships with prisoners) were perpetrated by females. Of all substantiated incidents involving female staff, 84% appeared to be fully consensual.
- 54% of incidents of staff sexual misconduct were perpetrated by females.
- In state and federal prisons, 67% of inmate victims of staff sexual misconduct or harassment were male, while 58% of staff perpetrators were female.
- Among all substantiated incidents between 2009 and 2011, 84% of those perpetrated by female staff, compared to 37% of those perpetrated by male staff, involved a sexual relationship that “appeared to be willing.”
Male gang members have dramatically more female sexual partners
Another study by Palmer and Tilley (1995) for The Journal of Sex Research examining the possible evolutionary psychological motives prompting young men to join street gangs revealed that "shows that the gang members in the study reported a significantly greater average number of sex partners during the last 30 days than the non-gang members reported for the same period (M, of 1.67 to 1.22, respectively)" and that "the two greatest total numbers of partners reported in our study were by two gang leaders, who reported 11 and 10 partners, respectively." The studies authors concluded that compared to prior study conducted by Laumann et al.'s examing men in the United States sexual habits; "many gang members in our study had as many, or more, sex partners in one month than the average male in Laumann et al.'s study had in one year."
Note all of this is despite some evidence that unattractive individuals are disproportionately drawn to a life of crime (https://www.nber.org/papers/w12019) , and vice versa for attractive individuals.
This author and the incel wiki provides this information solely for evidentiary purposes as regards to the mate selection procedure of female H.Sapiens, we do not encourage incels to "thugmaxx" (i.e commit violent crimes) in an attempt to ameliorate their sexual situation.
- Gang members reported a significantly greater average number of sex partners during the last 30 days than the non-gang members reported for the same period (M of 1.67 to 1.22, respectively); one-tailed t-test, t = 2.16, df = 118, p < .025. […]
- Two gang leaders […] reported 11 and 10 partners, respectively, [within the last 90 days] […]
- In contrast, no non-gang member in the study reported more than five partners within the last 90 days.
- We also predict that leaders of gangs, like leaders in many human societies, not only have sexual access to greater numbers of females, but also more exclusive sexual access to these females.
Male serial killers are frequently inundated by women's love letters in prisons
Hybristophilia is a sexual phenomenon that is definded as 'the erotic obsession with or exclusive sexual attraction with an individual who commits extremely heinous or violent crimes such as rape, murder serial killings etc.'
According to the research that has been conducted regarding the matter, it is a phenomenon almost completely found in women (see Gurian, 2013.)
Explanations for the women's attraction to these highly violent men range from a nuturing desire to 'fix' these criminals, or a desire for fame by association with them and their notorious crimes, but perhaps it is more likely a byproduct of women being wired by their evolutionary past to seek out relationships with dominant and psychopathic 'dark triad' men, as detailed above in the 'personality' section.
Men are attracted to "nice" women, but women are not attracted to "nice" men
Researchers sought to evaluate "niceness" in terms of responsiveness, which was defined as "a characteristic that may signal to potential partners that one understands, values and supports important aspects of their self-concept and is willing to invest resources in the relationship."
The researchers found that men who perceived possible female partners as responsive found them to be "more feminine and more attractive." They also found that when men found women to be responsive, it led to a heightened sexual arousal from the men and greater desire for a relationship.
On the other hand, when women perceived their male partner to be more responsive, they were less attracted to the man.
The Internet is full of women claiming the reason they "don't give nice guys a chance" is that those "nice guys" are not actually truly "nice". The more scientifically valid explanation for this behavior based on these findings is that a man's niceness does not appear to be sexually valued by women at all.
- Responsiveness may signal to a potential partner that one is concerned with her or his welfare, and may therefore increase sexual interest in this person.
- Research shows, however, that this proposition holds true for men, but not for women.
- Men, but not women, perceived a responsive stranger as more attractive.
- Responsiveness increased men’s perception of partner’s femininity.
Women desiring marriage and commitment are more attracted to narcissistic men
Haslam & Montrose (2015) conducted a survey of 146 British females asking them to rate their agreement with a series of statements intended to measure their attraction to narcissism in a potential male partner. The statements were based on the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) a psychological test designed to measure the level of "sub-clinical narcissism" in an individual. The researchers found:
- Women wishing to get married were more attracted to the narcissistic male personality (mean rank = 77.82) than those not desiring marriage(mean rank = 59.81).
- Women with a higher number of sexual partners were significantly more attracted to the narcissistic male personality.
- All of this is despite it being previously demonstrated that narcissistic mates are more likely to be unfaithful and narcissism is associated with a lack of relational commitment.
Female narcissism reduces marital quality for men, but male narcissism does not for women
Lavner et al (2016) gathered longitudinal data from a community sample of 146 newlywed couples assessed 6 times over the first 4 years of marriage to assess how narcissism in men and women differentially affected marriage quality and outcomes.
They measured partner characteristics of narcissism to determine the degree to which couples were matched on narcissism and related traits. Then they examined how narcissism predicted the trajectory of marital quality over time, testing narcissism's association with initial levels of relationship functioning and changes in relationship functioning.
It was found that high degrees of female narcissism predicted a decline in marital quality and satisfaction over time. However, male narcissism did not negatively affect marital quality or satisfaction.
This would seem to imply men are greatly bothered by narcissistic wives, but women are not so typically bothered by narcissistic husbands. This conclusion is in keeping with evidence reviewed that women find narcissistic men more attractive and actively seek them as husbands.
- Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that wives' total narcissism and entitlement/exploitativeness scores predicted the slope of marital quality over time, including steeper declines in marital satisfaction and steeper increases in marital problems.
- Husbands' narcissism scores generally had few effects on their own marital quality or that of their wives.
Teenage boys with ADHD have double the amount of sexual partners vs. 'normal' teens
A cohort study with a massive sample size (Østergaard et al.;(2017) N = 2,698,052) based on data taken from Danish government statistics found:
- Compared with individuals without ADHD, those with ADHD were significantly more likely to become parents at 12 to 16 years of age (IRR for females 3.62, 95% CI 2.14–6.13; IRR for males 2.30, 95% CI 1.27–4.17) and at 17 to 19 years of age (IRR for females 1.94, 95% CI 1.62–2.33; IRR for males 2.27, 95% CI 1.90–2.70) i.e boys with ADHD are more then twice as likely to be fathers in their teens.
Another study by Rokeach & Wiener(2018) consisting of "A community sample of 58 participants (30 ADHD, 28 Comparison), ages 13 to 18, completed questionnaires assessing various features of romantic relationships" replicated the findings of the above study by concluding:
- Males with ADHD reported their age of first intercourse to be nearly 2 years sooner than NT peers.
- Irrespective of gender, adolescents with ADHD had nearly double the number of lifetime sexual partners.
Therefore the greater number of children born to adolescents with ADHD is not due to them being less likely to use birth control as compared to NT (neurotypical) peers due to their impulsive nature, but because they have a much greater (2x) number of sexual partners.
Barring any further evidence that boys with ADHD are more physically attractive then NTs, their greater number of partners is most likely due to greater effort levels (i.e more courtship effort) and quite likely higher perceived social dominance, greater impulsivity (https://scholarship.richmond.edu/honors-theses/987/ study demonstrating link between ADHD and a low arousal threshold; also found in psychopaths) and their greater chance of being perpetrators of violent acts.
Sexy men are considered "funnier", but funny men are not considered "sexier"
Cowan & Little (2012) conducted a study to see if humor was a trait under sexual selection (particularly in men) as it is often touted to be in the mainstream discourse surrounding relationships.
The study consisted of 40 undergraduate college students (20 men, and 20 women) who were photographed, then participated in a video clip where they were asked which of three items (chocolate, hairspray or plastic bag) they would bring with them to a deserted island, and what they would with said items, with the subjects not being prompted to be humorous in their answer. The videos were carefully edited so they were all 20 seconds long.
A separate group of participants were places in a quiet room alone with a desktop computer, where they were played the aforementioned clips in random order, with the audio recording of the clips being played first, then viewing the photographs of the previous participants and then viewing the video clips. The participants were then prompted the rate the stimuli on a 7 point scale for how amusing they found it, and then rate how attractive they viewed the actors in the videos for short-term and long-term relationships, separately.
The stimuli of the participants was split in the following groups: attractive men, unattractive men and attractive women and unattractive women.
It was found that unattractive participants were viewed as less funny in the video and photograph conditions, with this effect being especially apparent in the photograph condition as compared to the audio only condition, with the opposite being true for attractive men thus demonstrating perceptions of humor are significantly influenced by the attractiveness halo effect.
- In line with Li et.al's findings, there was an interaction between conditions suggesting that individuals who were higher in attractiveness were rated as being funnier in conditions with low visual elements whilst individuals of lower attractiveness were rated as less funny then they were rated in the audio condition.
- If raters do not want attention from less attractive people, they may also be less likely to describe less attractive actors as funny in the video condition, as laughter could be seen as a way to reciprocate interest, which raters in this study may have wanted to avoid.
- Alternatively, it could be speculated that raters are more attentive to videos of more attractive actors which leads to higher rating of funniness.
Higher IQ men are more likely to remain virgins longer
Studies assessing the relation of IQ to sexual success in America have found that both adolescent men and women have higher rates of virginity when they have high IQ. Overall the most sexually successful individuals seem to be those with an IQ of 70-110, ie. below average to slightly above average.
At the low end of the spectrum, an interesting trend emerges, as we see that low IQs affect male and female sexual activity differently. 46.7% of low IQ men were sexually active, while only 18.4% of low IQ women were. Thus low IQ men were 2.5x as likely as low IQ women to be sexually successful.
This would suggest that high IQ impairs both men and women from sexual success, but low IQ does not as greatly impair men's sexual success as it would for a woman.
- 63.3% of adolescent men and 81.6% of women with IQ scores below average have never had sex and most have had fewer experiences of romantic attraction.
- An adolescent with an IQ score of 100 was 1.5 to 5 times more likely to have had intercourse than an adolescent with an above average score of about 120 to 130.
69% of high functioning autistic adolescents want relationships, but almost none succeed
The parents of 190 adolescents with high and low functioning autism were surveyed to evaluate the adolescents' perspectives around sexuality.
The adolescents upon whom parents were reporting were predominantly Caucasian (89.3 %) males (86.8 %) with a median age of 14 years (M = 14.51, SD = 1.96).
- 69.2% of adolescents with high functioning autism expressed desire for a dating relationship.
- 73.1% with high functioning autism expressed attraction to someone of the opposite sex, and 10.0% to the same sex.
- However, only 7.7% of this high functioning autistic cohort reported having had a relationship with someone of the opposite sex, and 1.5% with someone of the same sex.
- Only 1.5% of the group had sex.
Overall this group showed a normal amount of desire for sexual relationships, but a disproportionately low capacity to achieve them.
- Graham Holmes, Laura & Himle, Michael. (2014). Brief Report: Parent-Child Sexuality Communication and Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. 44. 10.1007/s10803-014-2146-2.
44.6% of high functioning adult autistic men remain virgins, despite high sex/relationship drive
A group of high functioning autistic men and women were evaluated and compared with healthy controls to assess their sexual and relationship desires and success/failure to achieve those desires.
44.6% of autistic men were found to still virgins among a sample with the average age being 35.7 years.
Autistic men were found to masturbate more and have a greater desire for a relationship than normal neurotypical (NT) men. However, only 16% of autistic men were in a relationship while 82% of NT men were in a relationship. NT men were 5x more likely to be in a relationship than their autistic counterparts.
Autism did not so greatly reduce women's ability to find relationships with men, as 46% of women were able to have relationships, while only 16% of men were.
This is likely due to the fact that autism reduces an individual's capacity for emotional interaction, but normal men crave emotional interaction less than normal women, so this will disproportionately impair an autistic man's attempts to find a relationship vs. an autistic woman's.
Autistic men were also burdened with a dramatically greater number of paraphilias which are considered "socially taboo". These paraphilias which appear to be part of their disease state can only be imagined to make their difficulties in finding sexual and romantic success more difficult.
- Male ASD participants reported more frequent masturbation than male healthy controls (HCs) (P<0.01).
- ASD men reported a greater sexual desire for sexual intercourse than their HC counterparts (P<0.05, Table III).
- Of the individuals with ASD, significantly more women (n=18; 46.2%) than men (n=9; 16.1%) were currently in a relationship
Normal people are less willing to interact with autists and find them less physically attractive
Sasson et al. (2017) conducted a series of studies with a similar methodology consisting of groups of ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) and NT (Neurotypical) peers in various modes of social interaction consisting of 'thin slices'. The study discussed here consisted of forty adult (20 ASD; 20 NT;17 males each group) participants.
The participants were comparable in IQ as measured by the WAIS test (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) and age. The participants were made to record a 60 second mock audition for a fictional reality television program, which were edited into five presentation modalities: (1) audio-only (2) visual-only (3) audio-visual (4) static image and (5) transcript of speech content. This allowed the researchers to examine which elements of the participants presentation styles contributed to the first impressions of observers.
The participants were then rated by a group of volunteers (who weren't informed of the clinical diagnoses of the ASD participants) in the form of an online survey. Each stimulus was rated one at a time on ten items using a four-point scale (0–3), on a number of socially desirable traits that are accurately assessed at first acquaintance: attractiveness, awkwardness, intelligence, likeability, trustworthiness, and dominance.
It was found that ASD participants were perceived more negatively on a number of the socially desirable traits examined, including attractiveness, likability, and dominance.
- Our findings show that negative first impressions of adults with ASD occurred only when audio and/or visual information was present, and not when the transcript of their speech content was evaluated. This discrepancy suggests that social presentation style rather than the substantive content of social speech drove negative impression formation of individuals with ASD.
- Supporting this conclusion, a static image was sufficient for generating negative first impressions of those with ASD and including additional information, such as body movement or voice, did not worsen them further.
- However, negative impressions did not occur for all evaluated traits, with the two groups not differing on ratings of perceived intelligence or trustworthiness
- In turn, this may limit opportunities in ASD for developing social connections and friendships, as well as the intergroup contact necessary for mitigating negative biases when present.
- Based on evidence in the literature and the data presented here, we propose that negative first impressions of ASD are not founded on any one feature of expression, but rather represent an effect of subtle physical, dynamic, and auditory cues of presentation that can also include additional features, such as clothing choices, grooming habits, gaze patterns, or body posture.
Autistic men have 10 times as many suicidal thoughts as normal men
Autism is a mental health condition that disproportionately affects men and often results in the sufferers of the conditions social isolation. Numerous studies show the harms of autism are deep and painful to those who must bear them. Autistic individuals are subjected to at least 4-5x as much bullying as normal children. Autistic children report 28x more suicidal ideation or attempts compared to normal children. Autistic adults report nearly 10 times as many suicidal thoughts. Overall, people with autism are 7.55 times more likely to die by suicide.
Due to the social deficits of those with this condition, and lack of human connection often concomitant with this illness, it could be reasonably argued that autists are among the most marginalized groups in society, particularly autistic males. Based on above data previously reviewed, most male autists will die never having experienced anything close to resembling a loving romantic relationship.
- About 46% of autistic children in middle and high school told their parents they were victimized at school within the previous year, compared with just over 10% of children in the general population.
- Percent of children with autism (1-16 year olds) for whom suicide ideation or attempts was rated as sometimes to very often a problem by mothers (14%) was 28 times greater than that for typical children.
- Compared with the general population, adults with Asperger’s syndrome were nearly 10 times more likely to report suicidal thoughts. They were also significantly more likely to have these thoughts than people with one, two, or more medical illnesses, or people with a psychotic illness.
- People with ASD were 7.55 times more likely to die by suicide. People with high-functioning ASD were at greater risk of suicide than low-functioning groups.
- http://healthland.time.com/2012/09/05/why-autistic-kids-make-easy-targets-for-school-bullies/* https://psychcentral.com/news/2014/10/13/suicidal-thoughts-10-times-more-likely-in-adults-with-aspergers/76016.html
See also: Racepill
Women are more racist in online dating, and 92-95% with a "preference" exclude any ethnic men
Yahoo Personals Dating Preferences Study sought to examine the dating preferences of online daters in four major metropolitan areas: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Atlanta. Internet daters' profiles of self-identified Asian, Black, Latino, and White men and women seeking opposite-sex dates were collected and coded from Yahoo Personals, which was the most popular national online dating web site in 2004 and 2005.
Women were considerably more likely than men to state they had a "racial preference". 74% of the 2735 women voiced a "racial preference", while 58% of the 2872 men voiced a "racial preference".
Among those women with a racial preference:
- When considering a man of a different race from their own: 95% excluded Indian men, 94% excluded middle eastern men, 92% excluded Asian men, 87% excluded black men, 69% excluded Latino men, and 42% excluded white men.
- The women who only wanted to date men of their own race were: 65% of white women, 45% of black women, 16.5% of Latino women, and 6% of Asian women.
- The women who excluded their own race were: 4% of white women, 8% of black women, 17% of Latino women, and 40% of Asian women.
Thus we can see that among this group, women employed a racial hierarchy for men in interracial dating of: White > Latino > Black > Asian > Middle Eastern > Indian. White women were the least likely to exclude their own race (4%) and most likely to only want their own race (65%). Asian women were most likely to exclude their own race (40%) and least likely to only want their own race (6%).
Women's interracial rejection rates of men were as follows:
- East Indian (95%) > Middle Eastern (94%) > Asian (92%) > Black (87%) > Latino (69%) > White (42%)
|States a Racial Preference (%)||71.9||77.0||74.2||73.1||74.2|
|Among Those With A Racial Preference (%):|
|Excludes East Indians||96.1||94.0||96.4||94.7||95.3|
|Excludes Middle Easterners||94.9||95.2||93.5||92.1||94.0|
|Prefers Same Race Only||65.4||45.0||16.5||6.0||33.8|
|Excludes Own Race||4.3||7.8||16.5||40.0||16.5|
Women are more racist than men in speed dating, and find Asian men least physically attractive
More than 400 graduate and professional students participated in speed dating sessions at Columbia University. The researchers found that while men did not show any strong race preferences, women of all races demonstrated significant racial biases.
They found the greatest female racial bias was against Asian men, and this was also associated with a general consensus from all women that Asian men were the least physically attractive overall. Even Asian women found white, black, and Hispanic men to be more attractive than Asian men. As with most studies, white men were the most attractive to women overall.
Fraction of women who said 'yes' to a further date, broken down by race of subject and partner:
|Female Subject Race||Acceptance (%) of Male Partner Races|
- Even in a population of relatively progressive individuals who have self-selected into participation in a multi-cultural Speed Dating event, we observe strong racial preferences.
- Women of all races exhibit strong same race preferences, while men of no race exhibit a statistically significant same race preference.
- The observed difference seems to reflect a genuine disparity in men’s and women’s willingness to be with a partner of a different race.
- For male partners, Asians generally receive lower ratings than men of other races. In fact, when we run the regressions separately for each race, we find that even Asian women find white, black, and Hispanic men to be more attractive than Asian men.
- Given that Asian men were the group that other races expressed strongest preference against, and that Asian women expressed the least preference against other races, the results suggest that attractiveness may play an important role in the determination of racial preferences.
White men get 11-14 times as much interest from women on Tinder vs. equivalent Asian men
An experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of race on male success on Tinder by pitting top Asian male model Godfrey Gao against top white male model Matthew Noszka, and two normal friends of Asian and white descent against one another as well for a more "typical" case comparison.
Fake Tinder profiles for each individual were created in an American city, and 5000 women were automatically swiped for acceptance in each case.
Results were as follows:
- The white male model received 4.4x as many matches and 11.5x as many messages as the Asian male model.
- The white friend received 3.6x as many matches and 14x as many messages as the Asian friend.
Most remarkably, the white friend who was chosen to represent a "normal" young white man received 1.8 times as many matches and 4.7 times as many messages as the Asian male model, indicating a normal white man is dramatically more desirable to women on Tinder than a top Asian male model.
i.e Even a top Asian male model cannot compete with a regular white man in the Tinder sexual marketplace.
Part 1 of Tinder race experiment comparing white and Asian top male models:
Part 2 of Tinder race experiment comparing white and Asian friends:
Being an Asian male in the USA is a primary predictor of 'never being kissed'
A study by Lefkowitz, Weschechelom and Leavitt (2018) consisting of a self report survey of sexual behaviour among 'first year university students' found that compared to their peers who had kissed partners, young adults who had never kissed were more likely to be Asian-American, less likely to be in a romantic relationship, were less extraverted, were more likely to be in the Honors College, and drank alcohol less frequently.
Asian women marry interracially more than twice as often as Asian men
The 2010 Pew Research Center Report (U.S. Census Bureau’s 2010 American Community Survey) investigated trends that year in interracial marriage. Their primary findings confirmed trends seen in other research which indicate Asian men are the least desirable to women, and black women are the least desirable to men. Overall, whites were also shown to be the least likely to interracially marry of any race. There were no gender differences in white/hispanic interracial marriage rates overall.
The primary date showed:
- 9.4% of whites, 17.1% of blacks, 25.7% of Hispanics and 27.7% of Asians married someone whose race was different from their own.
- 24% of black males married outside their race, compared with just 9% of black females.
- 36% of Asian females married outside their race, compared with just 17% of Asian males.
- There were no gender differences in intermarriage rates among whites and Hispanics.
Asian men have half the relationships as white men due to women's "racial hierarchy"
Data from the data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), was evaluated to examine romantic and sexual involvement among young adults, most of who were between the ages of 25 to 32 (n = 11,555). It was found that Asian men were significantly less likely than white men to be currently involved with a romantic partner, even after controlling for a wide array of characteristics. Our results suggest that the racial hierarchy framework best explains lower likelihood of involvement among Asian American men.
Overall, white men had the highest odds of being in a relationship, followed in order by Hispanic, black and Asian men.
Asian women by contrast did not suffer any reduced odds of being in a relationship compared to white women.
Researchers concluded that the dramatically lower odds of an Asian man finding a relationship are due to the racial hierarchies women employ in judging men.
|Man's Race||Odds Ratio of Being in a Romantic/Sexual Relationship|
- Asian women were half as likely as Asian men to be unpartnered (i.e., 18% versus 35%).
- Asian men, but not black or Hispanic men, exhibit significantly lower odds of involvement than white men. Specifically, they have roughly half the odds of current involvement as white men.
- We found no evidence that socioeconomic resources or physical characteristics were driving the lower levels of involvement among Asian men. Instead, our findings are consistent with the notion that Asian American men are at the bottom of the racial hierarchy when it comes to the different-sex dating market.
- If “Asian cultural values” account for differences in romantic partnership formation, we would have found similar patterns for Asian women as Asian men. In fact, the opposite was true.
- A racial hierarchy explanation suggests that Asian American men will be less likely than Asian American women to be partnered, as Asian American men face gendered cultural stereotypes barring them from entry into romantic partnerships.
Whiter, golden, & rosier (ie. Caucasian) skin is interpreted as healthier and more attractive
Scientific research demonstrates the global preference for whiter skin and "white standard" of beauty by which all races are judged is likely biological.
To remove racial bias from the equation, researchers asked Caucasian participants to change the skin color of Caucasian male and female faces on a computer screen to make them look as healthy as possible. The participants overwhelmingly increased the rosiness, yellowness and brightness of the subjects' skin. Past research from the same team showed this same preference in other races as well, where South Africans also tended to judge rosier faces as healthier.
A combination of bright, rosy, and golden skin is suggested to represent an objective biological indicator of health. This is likely ingrained in the human species from an evolutionary perspective, as the same preference has been observed in nonhuman animals.
- Stephen and his colleagues asked 54 Caucasian participants to change the skin color of about 50 male and female faces on a computer screen to make them look as healthy as possible. Hands down, the participants tended to increase the rosiness, yellowness and brightness of the skin.
- Participants increased skin redness, providing additional support for previous findings that skin blood color enhances the healthy appearance of faces. Participants also increased skin yellowness and lightness, suggesting a role for high carotenoid and low melanin coloration in the healthy appearance of faces. The color preferences described here resemble the red and yellow color cues to health displayed by many species of nonhuman animals.
- The results would likely hold for other ethnicities as well. For instance, past research has shown black South Africans tend to judge rosier faces as healthier. And forthcoming research suggests the same may hold for yellowness and lightness of facial skin.
- Effectively health and attractiveness are pretty much the same thing.
- Stephen, I.D., Law Smith, M.J., Stirrat, M.R. et al. Facial Skin Coloration Affects Perceived Health of Human Faces. Int J Primatol (2009) 30: 845. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10764-009-9380-z
An Asian face is more "similar to that of an infant" than other races
Researchers analyzing racial facial differences have observed that adult Asian facial structures are more similar to those of infants than other races. A person's degree of resemblance to an infant is termed "neoteny." Neoteny is a female sexually dimorphic trait, meaning that increased neoteny can make a face look more feminine.
This observation of greater neoteny among Asian facial structures in general may help to explain a large degree of women's disregard for Asian men. Having a more neotenous or infantile face may benefit Asian women while hindering Asian men.
- The facial structure of Asians is similar to that of an infant, including a wider and rounder face, higher eyebrow, fuller upper lid, lower nasal bridge with horizontally placed flared ala, flatter malar prominence and midface, fuller and more protuberant lips, and more receded chin.
Beauty is objective and measurable in the brain
It has long been debated whether there is there an objective, biological basis for the experience of beauty or if it is subjective and individually or culturally driven. To determine this, researchers showed average people images of masterpieces of Classical and Renaissance sculpture, and modified versions of these arts with less mathematically ideal proportions.
They then used fMRI to measure activation of the subjects' brains when they were exposed to either the beautiful ideal art or the less beautiful modified art. Researchers observed clear differential patterns of brain activation. It was shown that average people could easily come to consensus on which version was "beautiful" or not, and when beauty was encountered, it activated predictable pathways in the brain to process it.
Primarily, the insula appeared responsible for judging whether something was beautiful or not, and if something was beautiful, the amygdala would then be activated to provide an emotional response. Researchers state this suggests that both our capacity to detect beauty and enjoy the pleasurable sensations it elicits are strongly hardwired into our brain structure.
- The observation of original sculptures, relative to the modified ones, produced activation of the right insula as well as of some lateral and medial cortical areas (lateral occipital gyrus, precuneus and prefrontal areas). When volunteers were required to give an overt aesthetic judgment, the images judged as beautiful selectively activated the right amygdala, relative to those judged as ugly.
- We conclude that the sense of beauty is mediated by two non-mutually exclusive processes: one based on a joint activation of sets of cortical neurons, triggered by parameters intrinsic to the stimuli, and the insula (objective beauty); the other based on the activation of the amygdala, driven by one's own emotional experiences (subjective beauty).
- The main question we addressed in the present study was whether there is an objective beauty. Our results gave a positive answer to this question. The presence of a specific parameter (the golden ratio) in the stimuli we presented determined brain activations different to those where this parameter was violated.
- Although individual biases are undeniable, it is also rather implausible to maintain that beauty has no biological substrate and is merely a conventional, experientially determined concept.
- Di Dio C, Macaluso E, Rizzolatti G (2007) The Golden Beauty: Brain Response to Classical and Renaissance Sculptures. PLoS ONE2(11): e1201. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001201
People broadly agree on who is good looking or not, and it affects every aspect of life
In this review article, researchers establish with 11 meta-analyses that contrary to what the bluepill might claim:
- Raters agree about who is and is not attractive, both within and across cultures.
- There seem to be universal standards by which facial attractiveness is judged.
- Attractiveness is as important for males as for females in judging people we know.
- Attractiveness is as important, if not more so, for children than for adults.
- Attractive children and adults are judged more positively than unattractive children and adults, even by those who know them.
- Attractive children and adults are treated more positively than unattractive children and adults, even by those who know them.
- Attractive children and adults exhibit more positive behaviors and traits than unattractive children and adults.
- Attractive people may exhibit more positive behaviors because attractive and unattractive people are treated differently, so they learn to behave differently.
According to this data, the positive or negative impacts of one's attractiveness can be universally appreciated and resonate through an entire lifetime.
Weighted effect sizes for positive behaviors and life outcomes, comparing 'unattractive' to 'attractive' children and adults:
|Children (33 studies)||7,324||.40|
|Adjustment (15 studies)||3,876||.32|
|Intelligence & performance (10 studies)||3,043||.39|
|Popularity (15 studies)||1,002||.77|
|Adults (79 studies)||13,920||.40|
|Dating experience (9 studies)||1,631||.55|
|Sexual experience (6 studies)||1,678||.31|
|Extraversion (9 studies)||527||.26|
|Intelligence (18 studies)||3,853||.07|
|Occupational success (4 studies)||3,188||.76|
|Mental health (19 studies)||3,331||.16|
|Physical health(5 studies)||705||.38|
|Popularity (15 studies)||2,983||.65|
|Self-esteem (16 studies)||1,747||.24|
|Social skills (18 studies)||1,432||.20|
|Traditional attitudes (4 studies)||494||.27|
- Common maxims about beauty suggest that attractiveness is not important in life.
- In contrast, both fitness-related evolutionary theory and socialization theory suggest that attractiveness influences development and interaction.
- For cross-ethnic agreement the average reliability was r=.88, cross cultural agreement was even higher, r=.94 ... these results indicate that beauty is not simply in the eye of the beholder.
- In 11 meta-analyses, the authors evaluate these contradictory claims, demonstrating that (a) raters agree about who is and is not attractive, both within and across cultures; (b) attractive children and adults are judged more positively than unattractive children and adults, even by those who know them; (c) attractive children and adults are treated more positively than unattractive children and adults, even by those who know them; and (d) attractive children and adults exhibit more positive behaviors and traits than unattractive children and adults.
- These findings are powerful evidence that, contrary to popular belief, attractiveness effects extend beyond the mere "opinions" about others and permeate actual actions towards others, even though people may not be aware of it.
- Results are used to evaluate social and fitness-related evolutionary theories and the veracity of maxims about beauty.
- Psychological Bulletin 2000, Vol. 126, No. 3, 390-423 DOI: 10.1037//0033-2909.126.3.390
It takes less than one second for people to accurately judge beauty
Beauty can be identified and processed in under 1 second. In a world where beauty is paramount for dating, sex, and relationship sex, thus it likely takes less than 1 second of someone looking at you to determine if you are "good enough". Perhaps this is why Tinder has been so successful. It provides the most efficient way to only allocate 1 second to each decision before moving on. Given that women find 80% of men "below average" in attractiveness as described elsewhere on this page, this unfortunately means most men will only be given 1 second consideration before swiped away into oblivion.
- Increasing stimulus duration from 50 to 500 milliseconds increases aesthetic appeal, at least when the stimuli are abstract rather than natural, like faces.
- Pleasure and beauty are reported to be independent of stimulus duration over the range 1 to 30 seconds.
- Studies consistently find differences between an early processing stage up to 300 milliseconds from stimulus onset and a late stage after 500 milliseconds or more.
- The early stage is mainly related to experiencing the stimulus and thus reflects the processing of the aesthetic stimulus itself, as discussed in the previous section.
- The late stage is mainly related to making an aesthetic evaluation of the stimulus, that is, the cognitive decision about how to judge or rate the stimulus.
- Aenne A. Brielmann, Denis G. Pelli. Aesthetics. Current Biology, 2018; 28 (16): R859 DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2018.06.004
Babies can easily differentiate between attractive and unattractive faces
Newborn babies can easily differentiate between attractive and unattractive faces, suggesting that face recognition is hardwired at birth, rather than learned.
To demonstrate this, researchers took pictures of a variety of faces and asked adult subjects to rate them for attractiveness on a scale from 1 to 5. The researchers then searched for pairs of photographs that were similar in all respects – in brightness and contrast, for example – but at opposite ends of the attractiveness scale.
They then presented these paired photographs to newborn infants, who ranged in age from one to seven days old. All babies were still in hospital after birth. One researcher held each infant upright about 30 centimetres away from the two photos. Another stood out of view and noted where the babies eyes were directed.
On average, the babies spent 80% of their time looking at the more attractive face than the less attractive one.
- Attractiveness is not in the eye of the beholder, it’s innate to a newborn infant.
Parents treat attractive children better than ugly children
Parental treatment of their children was evaluated by monitoring their parenting styles in supermarkets. Particularly, researchers observed whether or not parents used the available seat belts on shopping carts or paid attention to if the child was behaving in a way that could be dangerous. They found that the attractiveness of the child directly determined how often the parent used seatbelts and paid attention to the child's safety.
This demonstrates that attractiveness determines a great degree of our early life experience, even in terms of how affectionate or protective our parents are, from the earliest years. Thus the psychological differences between adults who are attractive vs. those that are unattractive can be seen as an interaction of nature and nurture. Children who are attractive by nature get nurtured more, and thus develop into more confident, successful, and happy people later in life. Their looks provide a constant positive feedback cycle where people care more about contributing to their well-being over time.
- Researchers at the University of Alberta carefully observed how parents treated their children during trips to the supermarket. They found that physical attractiveness made a big difference.
- The researchers noted if the parents belted their youngsters into the grocery cart seat, how often the parents' attention lapsed and the number of times the children were allowed to engage in potentially dangerous activities like standing up in the shopping cart.
- Pretty and ugly children were treated in starkly different ways, with seat belt use increasing in direct proportion to attractiveness.
- When a woman was in charge, 4 percent of the homeliest children were strapped in compared with 13.3 percent of the most attractive children.
- The difference was even more acute when fathers led the shopping expedition -- in those cases, none of the least attractive children were secured with seat belts, while 12.5 percent of the prettiest children were.
Good looking people are more often presumed innocent and given lighter sentences/bail
Observational study: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1980.tb00715.x
Children trust attractive adults more than unattractive adults
Physical attractiveness in adolescence predicts better socioeconomic status in adulthood
Physically attractive individuals are more likely to believe in a 'just world'
Women feel sexual disgust when shown unattractive men
Researchers attempted to study how women rate men and react to imagined sex with men while in an aroused and unaroused state. To do so, they showed 91 women either an erotic video or a hiking video before rating the attractiveness of photographs of men’s faces. The faces varied in attractiveness. The women then rated their disgust towards anticipated behaviors with men depicted on photographs.
They found that the most dramatic influence on women's disgust was how attractive the man they showed them was. Sexually arousing women with pornography beforehand did not reduce their disgust at unattractive men. They note that women experience a higher degree of sexual disgust at baseline compared to men. Thus a man must be very attractive to override their innate sense of disgust. Since men have less sexual disgust at baseline, men may on the other hand be more flexible to consider women of more broadly varying attractiveness.
- Disgust is an avoidance reaction that serves the function of discouraging costly mating decisions.
- In an online experiment, women rated their disgust towards anticipated behaviors with men depicted on photographs.
- Participants did so in a sexually aroused state and in a control state.
- The faces varied in attractiveness and the presence of disease cues (blemishes).
- We found that disease cues and attractiveness, but not sexual arousal, influenced disgust.
- The results suggest that women feel disgust at sexual contact with unattractive men.
- Attractiveness seems to reduce disgust and therefore also avoidance tendencies—probably because it signals good health and small risk of pathogen transmission.
- Women on average have a higher disgust sensitivity and propensity than men. This also implies that they require relatively more sexual arousal to outweigh disgust and elicit a sexually functioning feedback loop. In other words, sexual arousal is less likely to outweigh disgust in women.
Figures: Add figure 2 - graph of disgust attractive vs. unattractive combined with figure 1 images.
- Zsok, F., Fleischman, D.S., Borg, C. et al. Disgust Trumps Lust: Women’s Disgust and Attraction Towards Men Is Unaffected by Sexual Arousal. Evolutionary Psychological Science (2017) 3: 353. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40806-017-0106-8
70% of women would openly avoid a man solely because of his looks
The skincare brand Remescar conducted a survey of 2,000 British men and women on their preferences for a romantic or sexual partner.
When women were asked what they desired in a romantic partner, their top rated value was “a nice smile”, and third from top was “body type”. 70 per cent of female respondents admitted that they would ignore or avoid an individual of the opposite sex solely because of the way they looked, versus 31 percent of men.
Love at first sight can be predicted by physical attractiveness
Researchers attempted to evaluate what contributes to the love-at-first-sight phenomenon using an online study, a laboratory study, and three dating events. They found that the primary predictor was physical attractiveness.
Strangers were more likely to report experiencing love-at-first-sight with physically attractive others. In fact, one rating higher in attractiveness on the scale that the researchers used corresponded with a nine times greater likelihood that others would report that "electric" love-at-first-sight feeling.
- Physical attraction was highly predictive of reporting love-at-first-sight (LAFS).
- We therefore suggest that LAFS is not a distinct form of love, but rather a strong initial attraction that some label as LAFS, either in the moment of first sight or retrospectively.
- Zsok, F., Haucke, M., De Wit, C. Y., & Barelds, D. P. (2017). What kind of love is love at first sight? An empirical investigation. Personal Relationships, 24, 869-885.
Looks are most important to women in speed dating
Luo & Zhang (2009) conducted a speed-dating experiment which consisted of (n=108) participants divided into two equal opposite sex groups. Before the speed-dating event, the participants completed a battery of psychometric tests and surveys designed to measure the big-five personality traits, attachment style, self-esteem, affectivity, interests and political and personal values. Six speed dating events were conducted, each 60 minutes in length.
Each date was 5 minutes long, with participants completing a questionnaire recording their evaluation of the date and their partners. The participants were informed that they were allowed to inquire about their date's contact information for further interaction outside the experiment, at their own risk.
After the dates were completed the participants were asked to complete a one-page post event questionnaire about their feelings and perceptions for each partner (i.e their desire for further contact, comfort and attraction towards their dates) and a one-page questionnaire of self-ratings. The participants' physical attractiveness was evaluated by a team of eight researchers (interrater agreement=.86)
Ultimately, it was found that the only significant predictors of women's attraction to their dates, were their dates physical attractiveness, and their interest in sporting activities. Whereas men's attraction, while also extremely related to the physical attractiveness of their partner (r=.88), was also significantly related to a number of personality traits, their partners age (with men preferring women up to the limit of 26 yrs old used in the study) and their partners political beliefs (men preferring conservative women).
There was also some evidence for the reciprocity principle (i.e that people like others more when their liking is reciprocated) but only after the participants had been informed of their partner's favorable responses towards them. There was no evidence that similarity in terms of convergent political beliefs, values, and personality traits measured mattered when it came to predicting attraction, at least in terms of the short-term dating paradigm used in this study.
- The strongest predictor of attraction was partner’s physical attractiveness, and this was well replicated across sex.
- Our results indicate that people like their partners better if they know their partners also like them. However, there was no evidence for the idea that similarity boosts attraction.
- It therefore seems a very solid finding that men and women are equally strongly drawn to physically attractive partners.
- This finding, however, appears to be inconsistent with the widely accepted finding in evolutionary research indicating a fundamental sex difference in their preferences for long-term partners ... evolutionary research does suggest that these sex differences in mating preferences tend to diminish or even disappear when short-term mating contexts are primed.
- In our particular case, it seems that women’s attraction feeling is dominated by partners’ physical attractiveness, just as their male counterparts, even though it is possible that when prompted to think about preferences for a potential mate, women would give priority considerations to characteristics like earning potential.
Looks are most important to women in video dating
Olderbak et al. conducted a video dating study consisting of sample of n=102 participants (56% women, mean age 18.85 years) all university undergraduates. The participants completed several self-report questionnaires, including the mate value inventory (measure of traits that are desired in a romantic partner), questionnaires designed to measure life history strategy, the Big Five personality traits, and a measurement of physical attractiveness.
Targets were instructed to either complete a questionnaire about themselves or respond with a 10 minute video clip to questions directed at themselves. Then, a second group of (N=335) participants completed the aforementioned battery on questionnaires, and were instructed to watch the 10 minute videos of the targets. If there existed a prior acquaintance with any of the targets, their data was excluded from the study. The participants were instructed to complete a questionnaire, detailing their perceptions of the targets personality traits, and their desire for a romantic relationship with the targets.
It was found, that the halo effects for females evaluating male targets were much more pronounced then vice versa. The males in the study didn't reach a consensus in regards to the female targets Big Five personality traits, and their life history strategy, but they did reach a consensus in regards the female targets physical attractiveness. The female subjects on the other hand, were able to come to an agreement regarding life history strategy and physical attractiveness of the male subjects.
Ultimately, it was found that physical attractiveness was the only significant predictor of romantic interest in both sexes.
- Our results suggest that the respondersˈ perception of the targetsˈphysical attractiveness, specifically that he or she was higher than the responder on physical attractiveness, was, amongst the traits studied here, the only significant predictor of romantic interest.
- We found that when women rated the traits of men, they more often came to an agreement than when men rated women. However, there were considerable halo effects on the trait perception by women.
- Overall, women came to an agreement on the male targetsˈmate value, mate value-reduced, physical attractiveness, slow life history strategy and extraversion, and men came to an agreement on the female targetsˈphysical attractiveness, conscientiousness and extraversion.
Looks are most important to women in blind dating
Walster et al. (1966) conducted a field experiment consisting of a "computer dance"; i.e blind dates organized by an old IBM punch-card computer, to test their hypothesis of assortative mating (that people tend to date others in their own 'league' of attractiveness, wealth, status, personality etc.) Four raters (college sophomores) rated the subjects (n=752) on a 8 point scale for physical attractiveness ranging from "very unattractive" to "very attractive".
The subjects then answered a questionnaire, of which the purpose of was to measure the level of four traits of the subjects: self rated popularity, how nervous they were of the date, their expectations of the date (how attractive and personable he/she expected the date to be) and their level of self-esteem measured by Berger's self-esteem scale. Also collected were the students SAT scores, and their high school grades percentile rankings.
The subjects were then assigned to a date by the IBM computer, with the condition that a man never be assigned to a woman taller then himself. The IBM punch card next in the deck was assigned to the subject in the case of that event.
After the blind date, the subjects were asked to rate their liking of the date, whether they would like to date the partner again, and their opinion of the date's personality, mutual compatibility between the subject and the date and liking of date for the subject. The conclusions of the study were:
- "It is apparent that by far the greatest determinant of how much liking an individual feels for his/her partner is simply how attractive the partner is" (correlation between liking of the date for men rating women was r=.79 and it was r=.69 for women rating men.)
- Men's level of academic achievement was actually somewhat negatively correlated with his dates desire for him (r=.-18)
- All the personality metrics measured (self-esteem, introversion vs extroversion and masculinity vs femininity) had no significant correlation with the subjects ratings of their dates.
It is Looks > Personality > Money for both genders, but women lie more about it
Researchers from Northwestern University attempted to answer the question: Do People Know What They Desire in a Romantic Partner?
The approached their research by first having candidates fill out questionnaires on what they felt was most important in a relationship. They then ran a 2 hour speed dating event where individuals had to choose afterwards who they wanted to see again. They were given the opportunity to start messaging any matches. They subsequently filled out a post dating questionnaire evaluating their opinions of their various matches.
Researchers then used follow up studies to assess who actually initiated a relationship and the correlations for physical attractiveness, wealth, and personality in predicting those relationships.
They found that men and women both underestimated the importance of physical attractiveness, but women far more so. Ratings were:
- Men's Pre-Conceptions: Personality (8.1) > Looks (8.04) > Money (6.91)
- Women's Pre-Conceptions: Personality (8.1) > Money (7.73) > Looks (7.18)
- Both Genders' Actual Factors: Looks > Personality > Money
Thus while women rated physical attractiveness for a man as their lowest priority, it turned out to be their strongest priority and even more important than it was for men. Studies like this suggest why it may not be useful to ask women what is most important to them, as in scientific studies, they have not been able to give reliable or factual answers on this subject. As in most cases, nature is best learnt through objective observation.
Men and women's pre-dating assessments of important of looks, money, and personality out of 10:
How much looks, personality, and money actually correlated with relationship success for each gender, showing it is Looks > Personality > Money for both genders:
- Although physical attractiveness, good earning prospects, and personable characteristics were all positively and significantly associated with romantic interest, the data revealed no evidence of sex differences in these associations.
Your looks define perception of your personality in online dating
When dating site OK Cupid first began, they allowed users to rate prospective partners independently on both personality and looks. Over time, they saw the futility of this approach, as it became apparent that users did not distinguish between personality and looks. In their blog, they cite an example of a "hot" model with no profile filled out, that still scored top points for both looks and personality (even though no one could possibly know anything about their personality from their empty profile).
In the end OK Cupid disabled the feature, and now only allows one global rating to be given. They published their data from when looks and personality were rated individually so others can see how online dating users consider these two factors essentially the same thing.
- According to our users, “looks” and “personality” were the same thing.
A man's personality only matters to a woman if he meets her basic looks cutoff first
Fugère et al. (2017) conducted a study examining the mate preferences of (n=80) women and their mothers.
The women and their mothers were presented with three color photographs of three different Caucasian males varying in physical attractiveness, together with one of three trait profiles which varied on traits commonly reported by women in previous research as desirable in a male partner (i.e: kind, funny, caring, industrious, dependable, mature etc.)
Each man's photograph (unattractive, moderately attractive, attractive) were paired with the varying trait profiles mentioned above, with the profiles being manipulated to vary in desirability.
The women rated the photos and profiles on desirability based on three questions: "how attractive do you find this person," "how favorably do you rate his personal description," and "how desirable would you find this person as a dating partner for yourself", on a 1-7 scale of desirability with the mothers rating the photographs and profiles on their level of desirability as a potential partner for their daughters.
It was found that physical attractiveness was more strongly correlated to the women's ratings of desirability for the men then their personality profiles (with the mothers being less selective on looks then their daughters, except when it came to unattractive men,) and that a certain level of attractiveness was thus seen as a 'necessity' for both the young women and their mothers.
- Regardless of the trait profiles associated with the target photographs, the attractive and moderately attractive men were rated as having more favorable personalities than the unattractive man.
- These finding suggest that when offspring or their parents rate physical attractiveness as less important than other traits, respondents assume that potential mates will possess a minimally acceptable level of physical attractiveness.
- Because of the positive association between attractiveness and pleasing personalities, it may be that we not only expect attractive others to have more favorable personality characteristics but that we also expect those with more favorable characteristics to possess at least a minimally acceptable level of physical attractiveness.
- Although personality ratings impacted mothers’ perceptions of the target men more so than daughters’, personality ratings were strongly influenced by men’s physical attractiveness.
Being unattractive reduces men's chances of finding partners, but not women's
Researchers analyzed the results of 11,056 interviews in Spain to assess which factors most predicted a person's ability to find a partner for marriage.
Their study found in numerous parameters and analyses that male attractiveness had a massive effect on a man's ability to find a partner, to find a partner with a university degree, or to find a partner with a higher educational level.
However, in all areas of study, no such effects were seen for women based on their attractiveness. Female physical attractiveness played no role whatsoever in assisting or impairing women from doing any of these things.
When speaking of the challenges that being an unattractive man poses in dating, many women are unsympathetic and cannot understand how being unattractive as a man could be so detrimental to success. Research suggests this may be because women do not suffer the same disadvantages from being unattractive, and thus have no personal reference for understanding the struggles of unattractive men.
- For men, the results show that being unattractive decreases the likelihood of finding a partner, of finding a partner with a university degree, and of finding a partner with a higher educational level.
- Being unattractive reduced the probability of mating for males by between 15 and 17 points, depending on the models used, when compared to the more attractive group, and 10 points compared to those with an average attractiveness level.
- Being unattractive decreased the probability of social advancement through mating in males. The difference between them and those that were very attractive was 29 percentage points. The difference for those with average attractiveness levels was 20 percentage points.
- For women, physical attractiveness does not affect the likelihood of any of those events occurring.
- Among women, physical attractiveness did not matter when it came to mating. The results for women indicate that attractiveness did not matter.
- Physical attractiveness matters for men.
'Very unattractive' women are more likely to be married than other women
Kanazawa, Hu & Larere (2018) conducted an analysis of the The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data consisting of a "sample of 20,745 adolescents" who were personally interviewed in their homes in four 'waves' ranging from 1994-2008. Only the data of those who participated in all waves and didn't drop out of the study was used for the authors analysis.
The authors analysed the data to find how attractive the participants (that were married or cohabitating) had been at the time of the beginning of their marriage or cohabitation, and used income as a proxy for their intelligence (IQ and income being robustly proven by previous research to be correlated.)
The authors concluded that 'very unattractive' women were more likely to be married or cohabitating then merely unattractive or even average to good looking women, and their spouses tended to earn more then their better-looking female counterparts. They infer that intelligent men have a preference to marry or mate with very unattractive women.
- The analyses of the (data) showed that very unattractive women were significantly more likely to be married ...than unattractive women at 29, sometimes more than average-looking women, and their spouses or cohabitation partners earned significantly more than those of unattractive or average-looking women.
- Because both intelligence and physical attractiveness are highly heritable, we would expect their offspring to be simultaneously intelligent and very unattractive.
- Intelligent men’s preference to marry or mate with very unattractive women, if robust, can potentially explain why the correlation between intelligence and physical attractiveness is not larger despite the assortative mating of intelligent men of higher status and physically attractive women over many generations.
Women are less likely to use a condom with a more attractive male partner
A study by Eleftheriou et al. (2019) consisting of an online questionnaire answered by "480 English-speaking women who have sex with men" who rated the facial attractiveness of 20 men and detailed their willingness to have intercourse with the men without a condom. They found:
- The more attractive a man was judged to be, the more likely it was that participants were willing to have sex with him (r = 0.987 p value <0.001)
- Further, the more attractive a man was judged to be, the less likely women were to intend to use a condom during sex (r = -0.552 p value = 0.007)
- The average perceived STD likelihood for a man had no significant association with his average perceived attractiveness or with participants’ average willingness to have sex with him
- The more attractive a participant judged herself to be, the more she believed that, overall, men are likely to have a STD
- Women showed significantly higher condom use intentions with: men who they rated as less attractive (p<0.0005), men who they rated as less likely to carry or transmit an STI (p<0.0005), men with whom they were less interested in having sex (p<0.0005) and when they estimated that fewer of their peers would also have condomless sex with him (p<0.0005).
In other words, whether a man is attractive is the most important predictor of whether women will use a condom during intercourse with him, and women are significantly more willing to use a condom with a man they see as less likely to carry an STD, despite attractiveness having no association with women's perceptions of men's STD risk.
A man's masculinity and physical attractiveness predicts a woman's chance of orgasm
Puts et.al;(2011) conducted a study of a sample of university students (men n=110, women n=110) who were in a committed sexual relationship. The participants were photographed and then led into a private booth where they completed a questionnaire where the men rated "rated their own attractiveness, dominance and masculinity and their partner's femininity" and the women rated their own attractiveness and their partner's dominance and masculinity. Women also reported their rate of orgasm during sexual intercourse and partner-aided and self induced orgasms during masturbation.
Using software the researches conducted a model objectively measuring facial sexual dimorphism and compared it to the photographs of the male participants. They discovered:
- "Objective measures of the quality of women's mates-men's attractiveness and masculinity-significantly predicted the women's orgasms"
- Women were quicker to orgasm with more masculine men (β=.36) when it concerned women reaching orgasm before their partners)
- Women were much more likely to orgasm (β=.50) during or after the man if he was more attractive and reported himself as dominant (β=.24)
- "Interestingly, this component of female orgasm (achieving orgasm after or during the male partners orgasm") was negatively predicted by male self-rated dominance and masculinity. Because more objective measures of male dominance, masculinity and attractiveness either weakly or negatively loaded onto the self-rated dominance/masculinity component, we suspect that self-rated dominance/masculinity measured something other than genetic quality"
- Masculinity and attractiveness predicted women's probability of orgasm during intercourse, but not during not intercourse activities (i.e oral sex, mutual masturbation) the authors suggested "this suggests that male sire quality increases female orgasm specifically during sexual behaviors that could result in conception, thus supporting the sire choice hypothesis(i.e that women's orgasms serve the function of increasing retention of the semen of more desirable mates)."
A man's physical attractiveness to other women predicts his partner's chance of orgasm
In another study, Sela et al. (2015) conducted a self-reported survey of women (n=439) in "committed, heterosexual relationship" to investigate the relationship between their chance of orgasm during their last copulation with their partner and their assessments of their own and other women's attraction to their male partners. They found:
- Women who perceived their partners as more physically attractive were more likely to orgasm during their last copulation with them. The researchers (controlling for possible confounding factors) found there was a direct relationship between male attractiveness and women's frequency of orgasm.
- What is interesting is their chance to orgasm was also mediated (caused) by their perceptions of other women's attraction to their mates.
This suggests that women are sexually aroused by a male partner they perceive as being highly attractive to other women, which provides more support for the hypothesis that mate-choice copying applies to human females.
A man's physical attractiveness predicts how long he waits before a woman will allow sex
Hunt, Eastwick & Finkel (2015) conducted a study which aim was to examine the effects of propinquity on human sexual attraction.
The participants in the study (n=334, 167 couples, 28 excluded from study) were recruited from a longitudinal study of romantic relationships. The participants were instructed to complete an online questionnaire, which was designed to evaluate the length of the relationship and the length of their acquaintance prior to the initiation of the relationship of the subjects.
The participants were then taken to a laboratory were they sat at a table and discussed their relationship while being filmed, the researchers making sure the face and torso of the couples were clearly visible in the videos.
Seven raters watched all of the videos and evaluated the physical attractiveness of the participants jointly, and then to control for possible halo effects influencing the results, the participants physical attractiveness was then evaluated separately by a new team of raters. Interrater reliabilty was high for both evaluations, with the assortative mating correlation being higher when the subjects were evaluated separately (i.e the partners were less 'matched' in looks when evaluated apart.)
It was discovered that the longer the participants 'waited' before dating, the less their levels of physical attractiveness correlated with each other. Thus, although the authors of the study seemed to attempt to portray this fact in a positive light (e.g 'leveling the playing field',) the study demonstrated that women make less attractive males wait longer in the 'friend zone' before they will initiate a relationship with them, if they do at all.
- Couples who formed their relationships soon after meeting were more likely to match based on physical attractiveness than those who formed their relationships well after meeting each other.
Men with dominant, aggressive faces (high FWHR) are preferred for short term relationships
A study was conducted by Valentine et al. (2014) utilizing a speed dating format, which consisted of young male and female subjects (n=159;78 young men and 81 young women) who weren't compensated in any way for their participation, and thus were participating in the study because they were "(looking for the) chance to find a real-life partner, suggesting the choices were primarily motivated by actual mating interests."
The males in the study were rated by independent raters on the following metrics:
- Dominance on a 7-point scale (unisex raters)
- How aggressive would this person be if provoked? (unisex raters;1=not at all aggressive,7=very aggressive)
- Facial adiposity (unisex raters;1=very underweight, 7=very overweight)
- Attractiveness on a 7-point scale (female raters only.)
- Inter-rater reliability was high for all four dimensions (As measured by Cronbachs Alpha)
It was found that men's FWHR was a significant predictor of being chosen for future dates by the women, and of the women's short term mating interest in the male.
The relation between the variables studied on women's interest in a long-term (LTR) or short-term (STR) relationship, and how likely they were to choose the men for a further date.
|Predictor||LTR||STR||Chance of Being Chosen|
- The direct and indirect effects of fWHR combined explain 34% of the variance in women’s interest in short-term relationships
- Men with wide faces are not more physically attractive to women, but are preferred for short-term relationships and future dates.
- Thus, results support our model that a higher male fWHR leads to perceptions of greater dominance, which in turn makes men attractive for short-term relationships
- The results are also consistent with the non-mutually exclusive explanation that women may be favoring dominant-looking men to gain protection in a short term context at the expense of having long-term investment.
High FWHR men express greater psychopathy, aggression, cheating, and exploitative behavior
- Men with high fWHR were described to be more aggressive, more fearless & dominant, higher in psychopathy, and less likely to die from direct physical violence than narrower-faced males.
- Wider faced men are more willing to cheat in order to increase their financial gains, more readily exploit the trust of others, and more often explicitly deceive their counterparts in a negotiation.
Male facial phenotype determines dating perception and success
By morphing a man's photo from its most masculine form to its most androgenous, researchers were able to directly gauge how the masculinity affected women's sensations of "friendliness", being "enemy-like", and being "sexy".
Sexiness and enemy-like characteristics both increased as masculinity increased, which is in keeping with other research finding women find aggressive, dark triad, or violent traits most sexually arousing. However, at a certain point of extreme masculinity, there was a decrease in the sexiness and only a rise in the enemy-like perception.
On the other end of the spectrum, the less masculine a male face was, the more likely it was to be perceived as a "friend" and less sexy or enemy-like.
Thus one's propensity for being judged by women as a short term partner, long term partner, or "friendzone" partner may depend highly on one's facial masculinity.
- Using a movie that morphs a very masculine male face (frame 1 of 700) into an androgynous face, the facial pictures and vertical lines indicate the mean location of participants’ dominant male (DOM), short-term mate (STM), long-term mate (LTM), average male (AVM) and androgynous face (AND) selections, with respect to experimentally assigned personality traits.
- F1 (‘Friend’ factor) is composed of positive attributes such as sensitive, helpful and trustworthy.
- F3 (‘Enemy’ factor) consists of undesirable attributes like selﬁsh, controlling and threatening.
- The ‘Lover’ factor (F2) includes sexually exciting, supportive and healthy.
- The STM selection appears to be the best ‘good-genes’ choice (Lover factor), while avoiding the negative traits associated with high degrees of masculinity (Enemy factor).
- The LTM selection appears to trade off some ‘good genes’ attributes in favor of those required for a good friend and good father (included in F1).
Teenage boys with 'dominant' facial features have sex earlier
Halpern & Udry (1994) conducted a 3 year long study of (n=58) teenage boys to determine the effects of sexual hormones on sexual behavior. They administered a series of questionnaires conducted in the boys homes regarding their involvement in various sexual activities. The interviewer rated the subjects level of physical attractiveness.
The subjects level of pubertal development (related to the Tanner Scale) was self assessed. Facial dominance was assessed by presenting classrooms of college students with yearbook photos of the subjects in a random order and were rated on a 7 point scale (1-very submissive, 7-very dominant.)
The researchers found facial dominance was strongly related to age of sexual debut and level of involvement, and the effect was even more pronounced then that of physical attractiveness.
Correlations between factors and whether the subjects had sex once or multiple times.
|Factors||Attractiveness||Pubertal Development||Wears Glasses||Had coitus||Multiple Copulations|
|Ever Had Coitus||.88|
- Attractiveness and dominant appearance each account for variance in sexual experience beyond that explained by pubertal development, but dominance is the better predictor. This result is consistent with our expectation that dominant looking men have earlier coital opportunities than submissive looking men.
- Lacking data on female choice, we cannot say if dominant looking men have more sexual access because women give it to them, or because the men obtain it for themselves, or for both reasons.
- Dominant faces are likely to be handsome or muscular, oval or rectangular in shape, and with prominent as opposed to weak brow and chin.
A man having the "correct" race, height, and face is worth millions of dollars to women
To approximate the value of a man's race, height, and facial attractiveness to women, researchers uses a novel data set obtained from an online dating service. Their analysis was based on a detailed record of the site users’ attributes and their partner searches, which allowed them to estimate each user's preference specifications, taking into account a large number of partner characteristics.
Their findings included:
- White and black women had the most expensive racial "preferences", with both strongly preferring to only consider men of their own races.
- Being an Asian man costs $247,000 extra per year compared to a white man to get equal interest from a white woman.
- Being a black man costs $154,000 extra per year compared to a white man to get equal interest from a white woman.
- Being a white man costs $220,000 extra per year compared to a black man to get equal interest from a black woman.
- Being 5'7" costs $150,000 extra per year compared to a 5'11" guy, or $180,000 extra compared to a 6'2" man.
- Being bottom 10% facially costs $40,000 extra per year compared to an average man or $186,000 extra compared to a top 10% man.
- The maximum cost of facial ugliness in the percentile ranges they were able to measure was $186,000, for a bottom 10% man to match a top 10% man.
If these annual costs can be applied over the decades that a long term partnership would involve, the value of a man's race, height, and face to a woman can be estimated well into the millions of dollars over a lifetime.
The Monetary Value of a Man's Race to a Woman:
The amount of income needed above baseline of $62,500 USD per year for men to be considered equal by women on the basis of their races.
|For Equal Success With:||Additional Income Needed by:|
|White Men||Black Men||Hispanic Men||Asian Men|
The Monetary Value of a Man's Height to a Woman:
The amount of money a man must earn beyond a baseline of $62,500 USD to be equally desirable as a man who is 5'11.5" tall.
|Man's Height||Additional Income Needed From Man|
The Monetary Value of a Man's Face to a Woman:
The amount of income needed above baseline of $62,500 USD per year for men to be considered equal by women on the basis of their faces.
|Man's Facial Looks Rating||Additional Income Needed From Man|
|Average in 1st Decile||$186,000|
|Average in 2nd Decile||$169,000|
|Average in 3rd Decile||$159,000|
|Average in 4th Decile||$151,000|
|Average in 5th Decile||$143,000|
|Average in 6th Decile||$128,000|
|Average in 7th Decile||$86,000|
|Average in 8th Decile||$37,000|
|Average in 9th Decile||$25,000|
|Average in 10th Decile||$0|
- What Makes You Click? — Mate Preferences and Matching Outcomes in Online Dating. 2006.
23-33% of women intentionally mislead men they are not interested in for free meals
Collison, Howell & Harig (2019) conducted two studies of 'foodie calls,' i.e when a person (almost overwhelmingly a woman) feigns reciprocal interest in a romantic suitor with the intention of using them for a free meal.
Using Amazon's Mechanical Turk , the researchers surveyed women about their opinions of the moral acceptability of this behavior and if they had ever engaged in this behaviour themselves, and if so how often that had engaged in this behavior.
It was found that over two studies, 23-33% of women had admitted to engaging in this behavior, with (data taken from the second study) a third reporting to doing so occasionally (33%,) and a significant portion of the sample stated that the had engaged in this behavior frequently (15%,) or very frequently (5%.) The rest of those who had engaged in a 'foodie call' had admitting to doing so rarely (24%) or very rarely (21%.)
It was found that the Dark Triad traits were correlated with women propensity to engage in foodie calls and their perception of them as acceptable, but the researchers were not able to distinguish which of the sub-component 'dark traits' predicted women's tendency to engage in this behavior. It was also found that higher levels of attachment to 'traditional gender roles' were also correlated with women's chance of engaging in this behavior and their views of it being acceptable.
- Despite women generally rating foodie calls as unacceptable, approximately 23% of women had engaged in a foodie call in Study 1, whereas 33% reported engaging in a foodie call in Study 2.
- The general dark triad factor, rather than any specific trait, was the only predictor to emerge in all models.
- Both social role theory and dark triad suggest that women with dark personality traits and traditional gender role beliefs may exploit traditional dating scripts for men. The findings support these theoretical relationships in a real-world dating situation.
Women orgasm more when having sex with rich men
Pollet & Nettle (2009) conducted a study investigating women's self reported orgasm frequency and the characteristics of their partners. The two variables in particular that were examined were annual wealth and height.
The researchers used data drawn from the Chinese Health and Family Life Survey sampling '60 villages and urban neighborhoods chosen in such a way as to represent the full geographical and socioeconomic range of contemporary China (i.e the PRC, excluding Tibet.)
The items in the survey pertaining to the research were answered in conditions of exceptional privacy (the participants were away from their homes, and the researchers administering the survey couldn't see the answers to the 'sensitive' questions involving sexuality.)
The data was analyzed by the researchers using several models to examine the correlations between partner height, annual income (in yuan) and self-reported orgasm frequency, carefully controlling for several possibly confounding variables such as relationship satisfaction, education levels of the partner etc.
It was found that there was a significant correlation between the women's orgasm frequency and the partners annual income, but no significant correlation existed between orgasm frequency and partner height.
- The third interpretation is that more desirable mates cause women to experience more orgasms.
- There may be assortative mating of desirable men with women susceptible to be highly orgasmic.
- However, we note that the data show (sic) that the more frequent orgasm of women paired to high-income men are not explicable by those women being healthier or happier overall.
Men with much lower incomes then their wives are more then twice as likely to not have sex
Kim,Tam & Muennig (2017) analysed data from the long running General Social Survey (GSS) to examine the 'socio demographic, attitudinal, and lifestyle factors that were associated with past-year sexlessness'. It was found that married men that contributed <20% of the household income were more then twice as likely to not have sex in the past year.
- Among males, the multivariable analysis also showed that sexlessness was associated with providing less than 20% of the household income (OR 2.27).
Photoshopping a man into a luxury apartment made women rate him as 30% more attractive
Dunn & Hill (2014) conducted a study wherein undergraduate students (females rating a males photo;n = 35) rated the attractiveness of a control photo of a opposite sex target in a 'neutral' apartment vs luxury. The photos were rated by two groups of participants, one group rating the control photo and another rating the luxury apartment photo. The participants rated the attractiveness of the opposite sex target photo on a decile (1-10) scale.
The subjects were also asked to rate ‘distracter photos’ which were employed and presented in such a manner as a way of minimizing the participants ability to guess the nature and purpose of the study.
They also conducted a smaller scale (n=10) preliminary study 20 (N = 10 male/10 female) involving undergraduate students, once again from the same university which they estimated the age and attractiveness of four potential opposite-sex target models of which one from each sex was chosen for use in the main study (above).
It was found that, in both studies, that apartment context of a women's photo had no significant effect of the male raters judgement on the rated attractiveness of the photo. However, there was a significant (33% more attractive) effect for women rating the photos of the men.
- Any differences in attractiveness scores given between sexes revealed in the main study could be attributed to the experimental manipulation of wealth and status alone.
- It appears then that it may be adaptive for men to display luxury consumption for example through purchasing a sports car or expensive house/apartment as a way of enhancing their social status, leading to more mating opportunities and higher levels of fitness.
- However, the results of this and other studies suggest that if women are attempting to increase the likelihood of attracting males through status enhancement, then this may indeed be a futile endeavour.
A man's dating pool is set by his height; >94% of women will reject a man for being "too short"
Stulp et al (2013) used a sample of 5782 North American speed-daters making 128 104 choices to determine preferences for partner height and how height influenced the formation of a match. They found that women were most likely to choose a speed-dater 25 cm taller than themselves, whereas men were most likely to choose women only 7 cm shorter than themselves. As a consequence, matches were most likely at an intermediate height difference (19 cm) that differed significantly from the preferred height difference of both sexes.
Their data can be further analyzed to provide data about women's height cutoffs, the benefit of each inch of height for a man, and the degree of competition each man faces based on his height.
Their findings also demonstrated the cutoffs at which women consider a man too short or too tall:
- 90% of women will reject a man who is 5'4" based solely on his height.
- 65% of women will reject a man who is 5'7" based solely on his height.
- 50% of women will reject a man who is 5'8" based solely on his height.
- 14% of women will reject a man who is 5'10" based solely on his height.
- 1.5% of women will reject a man who is 6' based solely on his height.
- Past 6'2", women begin to increase rejections of men for being too tall.
- 30% of women believe there is no such thing as a man being "too tall."
- Over 94% of women will reject a man solely for him being too short.
2) Every Inch Counts:
Further analysis of their data demonstrates the importance of every inch of height for men, as two inches of height gain for a man can be found to have the following results:
- A man in the 5'4-5'6" range will have more than double the potential number of female partners with 2" height gain.
- eg. A 5'4" man will have 2.3 times as many potential female partners by gaining 2" height.
- A 5'7" man will have 1.86 times as many potential female partners by gaining 2" height.
- Benefits become insignificant past 5'10".
- Below 5'1" a 2" height gain also makes an insignificant difference, as even after 2" gain, a man at this height is still "too short" for most women to consider.
Because the few women who are willing to date a shorter men are also generally willing to date a taller man as well, the competition for women willing to date shorter men becomes extremely high. This means:
- A 5' man must "beat" over 12 men (most of whom will be taller) to get a girl accepting of his height.
- A 5'4" man will have to "beat" over 7 other men (most of whom will be taller) to get a girl accepting of his height.
- 5'10 to 6'4" men have the least competition as the demand for these men outpaces their supply, and statistically overall women must compete for these men rather than vice versa.
Height discrimination can be seen from this study to be one of the most brutal, unforgiving, and Darwinian aspects of female nature. Height is a critical cutoff factor for women for which they have no hesitancy to discriminate harshly or discard vast numbers of men over.
- Stulp, Gert & , A.P.Buunk & Kurzbaum, R & Verhulst, Simon. (2013). The height of choosiness: Mutual mate choice for stature results in suboptimal pair formation for both sexes. Animal Behaviour. 86. 10.1016/j.anbehav.2013.03.038.
Women are happiest with their partner's heights when they are 8.24" inches taller then them
Stulp, Bunk & Pollet (2013) conducted a study regarding the preferences for height in a romantic partner of (N=693,) mainly ethnic Dutch and German university students. The were asked a series of questions regarding their preferences in regards to the height of a potential partner, which was broken in three categories, minimally acceptable, ideal and maximally acceptable.
There was also queried as to their current relationship status, and if they were currently in a relationship, their partners height. Finally they were asked to indicate their level of satisfaction with their own height, on a 100 point scale.
After the data was subjected to a statistical analysis by the researchers, it was found that an individuals height correlated significantly with preferred height in both sexes, with the taller men generally preferring much shorter women and the shorter women preferring much taller men, with shorter men and taller women both tending to prefer smaller height differences.
The researchers analyzed the data of the participants in relationships and found that women were most satisfied with their partner's heights when they were 8.24 inches (20.93 cm) taller them themselves, with men being the most satisfied with a partner 3.25 inches shorter (8.26 cm,) however partner height was much more important for explaining partner height satisfaction for women then men, explaining by more then four times the variance.
It was also discovered that their was a curvilinear relation with men's heights and their self-reported satisfaction with their height, with the men that were 6' 4.5 inches tall (193.73 cm) being the most satisfied with their heights.
Thus, it was found that women and men disagreed on the 'ideal' height difference between partners in heterosexual relationships, with women desiring taller men much more then men desired shorter women, that women were far more restrictive with their minimum height requirements, and there existed a greater consensus among women as to the preferred height of a male partner.
- Thus, men were most satisfied when their partner was slightly shorter than themselves, whereas women were most satisfied when their partner was much taller than themselves.
- Women were much more restrictive in their range of acceptable heights compared to men. That is, women were more likely to rule out certain heights as completely unacceptable.
- The increased satisfaction with their own height among taller men is also in line with studies indicating that tall men have higher self-esteem, display less jealousy towards other men, and display higher levels of subjective well-being.
Short men have twice the suicide rate of tall men
Researchers in Sweden surveyed data including 79% of all men born in Sweden in 1950–1981 to identify health outcomes for these men. They found that every extra 5 cm of height reduced suicide rates by 9%, such that the tallest men had half the suicide rate of shorter men.
They suggest that reasons for this difference are likely that shorter men tend to have lower socioeconomic success as they grow up. Additionally, as women judge shorter men negatively, they are less likely to be romantically successful, which generally protects against suicide.
- We found a twofold higher risk of suicide in short men than tall men.
- The associations do not appear to be attributable to socioeconomic confounding or prenatal influences on growth.
- Short individuals are more likely to be in a low social class as adults, independent of their childhood social class.
- Marriage protects against suicide, and short individuals may be less likely to marry than taller ones.
Taller men experience a better quality of life in almost every respect
Women lie more about their heights in online dating than men
36.4% of US male online daters are now resorting to anabolic steroids & bulimia to compete
Researchers from Harvard in 2019 surveyed online dating users and non dating app users in the United States using Amazon's platform to evaluate if online dating usage was associated with risky image enhancing behaviors. Their sample included 1098 women and 628 men. 33% of the men in their survey reported using online dating. 36.4% of male online daters reported using Anabolic Steroids (AS), as opposed to only 3.8% of non online dating men who reported AS use.
The portion of those surveyed who identified as "African-American" were the most likely to use AS (Odds-ratio of 3.665) followed closely by Hispanics (OR 3.413) compared to Whites. The overall odds-ratio of a dating app user to use AS compared to a non dating app user was 26.926.
For men using online dating vs. not using online dating, the prevalence of the following behaviors were assessed: anabolic steroid use, vomiting for weight control, laxative use, diet pills, fasting for weight loss, and muscle building supplements.
All behaviors were dramatically more common in men than women, despite common portrayal of eating disorders as "female issues". Specifically, for example, vomiting for weight control (bulimia) was found in 22.4% of female online daters, and 36.4% of male online daters. Thus male online daters are 1.6x as likely as female to have bulimia.
Results did not suggest different odds of any behavior based on sexual orientation.
These findings can most easily be interpreted as representing what is known in evolutionary biology as "fisherian runaway". Fisherian runaway is the process of men taking on increasingly extreme and maladaptive adaptations to increase their sexual dimorphism. It is the natural result of a more and more competitive sexual marketplace that is otherwise cutting them out.
|Behavior||% of Men|
|Online Dating||Not Online Dating|
|Vomiting For Weight Control||36.4||5.3|
|Fasting For Weight Loss||54.1||27.0|
|Muscle Building Supplement||49.8||18.1|
All women find the bodies of "strong looking men" more attractive than those with weaker bodies
Two studies by Sell,Lukazsweski and Townsley (2017) published by the Royal Society examining the preferences of 160 young female raters, found a very strong (r=0.80) correlation between bodily attractiveness and rated physical strength. Furthermore, they discovered "we found no evidence of the inverted-U hypothesis(i.e that there is a level of musculature/physicality that 'too much' to be attractive); rather, in both samples, the strongest men were the most attractive, and the weakest men were the least attractive".
The authors of the study also found that "(The data was) examined to see if any women in our samples showed a significant preference for weaker men. They did not. None of the 160 women in our study who rated attractiveness produced a statistically significant preference for weaker men (all p > 0.05) ... In other words, we could find no evidence that there exists a sizeable population of women who prefer physically weaker men when evaluating male bodies."
- Ratings of strength are a robust and much larger predictor of bodily attractiveness than either height or weight.
- Height is attractive even independent of making a man look strong. Controlling for how strong a man actually looks, raters still classify taller men as more attractive in two of the three samples.
- Weight is unattractive after controlling for how strong a man looks...this is consistent with the hypothesis that women's mate choice mechanisms respond to muscle mass positively but large stores of body fat negatively.
- Height, weight and ratings of strength collectively account for approximately 80% of the variance in male bodily attractiveness.
- Cues of upper body strength account for most of the variance in men's bodily attractiveness.
- Contrary to popular theories of men's physical attractiveness, there was no evidence of a nonlinear effect; the strongest men were the most attractive in all samples.
Facial attractiveness contributes more to overall attractiveness then body, particularly in men
A study by Peters, Rhodes and Simmons(2007) which involved 12 female students, rating photographs of combined facial and bodily pictures of men, and rating them separately (face and body) found "The male body component did not predict overall attractiveness. In contrast, rated face and body attractiveness both predicted overall male attractiveness, although face attractiveness was the stronger predictor." They also found "Face attractiveness was a significantly stronger predictor of overall attractiveness than body attractiveness in males, but not in females (males z=2.12 females z= 1.08)." Commenting on this they speculated "bodies and faces may reflect different aspects of mate quality. The body may be more responsive to lifestyle choices, such as exercise, fashion and grooming. Face structure,however, may be a more stable and honest indicator of heritable aspects of mate quality."
Another study by Currie and Little (2009) replicating the earlier quoted study, which consisted of male and female subjects rating body and face pictures separately and then together in a random order found "Ratings of facial attractiveness were a better predictor than ratings of bodily attractiveness of the rating given to images of the face and body combined. This suggests that facial attractiveness is more important in people's evaluation of overall physical attractiveness than body attractiveness and therefore implies that facial attractiveness is more important than body attractiveness in human mate choice decision" and that "Interestingly, the body was relatively more important in male ratings of female images under the short-term mating condition compared with the long-term condition (more then twice as important). The effect of facial attractiveness was relatively constant under both conditions."
Another finding was "There is some evidence for a hierarchical interaction between facial attractiveness and bodily attractiveness in determining overall physical attractiveness, especially in female ratings of male bodies. The male models with the three lowest mean ratings of their bodies had mean combined face and body ratings lower than either the independent body ratings or the independent face ratings. This suggests that the body needs to be above a certain level of attractiveness before the overall physical attractiveness is rated at a higher level" (Thus body possibly does matter to women somewhat significantly, if it is below a certain threshold necessitated by female choosiness; interestingly the guy with the best rated face in the study(still a relatively mediocre rating of 2 out of 4) had the worse rated body and his combined rating was lower then both.)
Although "the results show that the body is also important in determining physical attractiveness. Body cues are thought to provide a number of types of information in both sexes" the studies authors concluded that "facial attractiveness seems to be more important than body attractiveness in judgments of human physical attractiveness for both sexes".
The most attractive BMI for men is 24.5 and for women 17-20 as it is most youthful
Also look up stats on what % fit this range now vs previously.
Men prefer low waist-hip ratios in women as they signal youth
Even congenitally blind men prefer a low waist-hip ratio in women
Karremans, Frankenhuis, and Arons (2009) conducted a study comparing the preference for a lower waist-hip ratio, a trait argued to be near universally desired by men cross culturally, between a sample of congenitally blind men (n=19) and (n=38) sighted men; half of whom were blindfolded.
These men were invited into a mobile van which doubled as a laboratory and asked to rate the bodily attractiveness of "two mannequins with an adjustable waist and hips" (the researchers) adjusted the waist and hip circumferences such that the mannequins differed in WHR: one 0.70, and the other 0.8. A ratio of 0.7 has been generally portrayed as ideal in such studies, but the researchers noted that this assumption is based on studies where 0.7 was the lowest WHR examined, and that an even lower ratio may be even more desirable.
The researchers findings were:
- "The study demonstrates that congenitally blind men, like their sighted counterparts, prefer a low female WHR."
- Although both sighted and blind men preferred the lower WHR, the effect was stronger for sighted men who visually inspected the bodies
- This implies while there is an innate, instinctual preference among men for a lower WHR, this preference can also be strengthened by visual input.
Women have a preference for penises longer than 84.8% of all men's
A study by Prause et al. examined the preference for penis size in their male partners among women. It found that presented with scale 3D printed dildos, women preferred a penis of slightly larger circumference and length for one-time (length = 6.4 inches/16.3 cm, circumference = 5.0 inches/12.7 cm) versus long-term (length = 6.3 inches/16.0 cm, circumference = 4.8 inches/12.2 cm) sexual partners. Which according to this website demonstrates women preferred a penis fully one standard deviation above the average penis size for one-night stands.
This works out to a penis size at the 84.8th percentile for length and 71.8th percentile for girth.
21% of the study's participants also admitted they had terminated a relationship due to the partner's penis being 'too small' vs 7% ending a relationship due to the partner's penis being 'too big'.
Larger penis size has an equivalent effect on male attractiveness to women as greater height
A study by Mautz et al. published (comically enough) in PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2013) where women rated life sized projections of 3D male bodies, which varied on such dimensions as shoulder to waist width ratio, stature and flaccid penis length, concluded (in somewhat contradiction to the results of the above study, which examined preferences for erect and not flaccid penis length) that "surprisingly, larger penis size and greater height had almost equivalent positive effects on male attractiveness" and that size of flaccid penis that was seen as more attractive by women, didn't decrease at the upper range examined (at least up to the limit of 13 cm, or 5.11 inches used in the study) along with greater height similarly always being more attractive.
Although the three parameters examined significantly interacted with each other, such that one needed to meet a certain threshold in all three to be seen as attractive, so a large penis therefore can't compensate for having excessively wide hips and narrow shoulders or short stature or so on.
A video of a researcher discussing the results of the study is available here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Be6dTdx1qxs
Men with deeper voices have more children and sexual partners
Apicella et al. (2008) conducted a study of the Hadza hunter-gatherer tribe in Tanzania, which consisted of male subjects speaking into an auditory recording device to record vocal pitch and also reporting their reproductive histories. The Hadza do not conduct arranged marriages, women are free to choose their marital partners. The authors found:
- Voice pitch alone explained approximately 42% of the variance in men's reproductive success.
- "On the basis of these findings, we speculate that the associations reported between reproductive success and voice pitch in men are likely to be mediated by greater access to fecund women."
- "Finally, we were unable to confirm paternity, so we cannot rule out the possibility that, men with low voice pitch may just have more confidence in their paternity than men with high voice pitch."
- The authors concluded that voice pitch has been under sexual selection throughout human history.
Another study by Puts (2005) recorded the vocal samples of a (N=111) males from the University of Pittsburgh and asked them to report their number of recent sexual partners. He also had (n=142) female students in various states of ovulation (conception risk) rate the attractiveness of the male voice samples, based on whether they were desired for a short or long term relationship. It was found:
- Lower voices were perceived as more attractive, particularly in fertile women for short-term relationships.
- The authors of the study stated low vocal pitch in males is attractive to women possibly because it denotes "good genes", benefits males in male to male competition for mates, or it simply developed due to "Fisherian Runaway sexual selection" (i.e The 'sexy son' hypothesis)
- Lower vocal pitch predicted male participants’ self-reported number of sexual partners over the past year (r=.17)
Among male CEOs, voice pitch is a significant predictor of earnings
Mayew and Venkatachalam(2013) conducted a study of the vocal pitch of male CEOs using software (PRAAT acoustics software program) and found:
- A 1% decrease in voice pitch is associated with a $30 million increase in the size of the firm managed, and in turn, $19 thousand more in annual compensation.
- This was most likely due to CEOs with deeper voices being favored more for leadership positions, due to them being perceived as possessing more "leadership qualities".
- The oft-lamented dearth of female CEOs and the corporate pay gap may be partially due to this factor, the authors stated "If voice pitch was the sole determinant of firm size for a female CEO, our estimate.. would imply that the size of the firm run by a female CEO with a voice pitch of 210 Hz would be about $1.5 billion. For the female CEOs listed in the S&P 1500 stock index during our sample period, the median firm size is strikingly similar at roughly $1.7 billion in assets."
- Body size, and FWHR are not significantly correlated with vocal pitch, therefore the effects of vocal pitch seen in this study are not confounded by these factors.
It is normal for healthy men to find pubescent & prepubescent females sexually arousing
Scientific studies of male arousal are often done using phallometry, which allows objective measurement of the men's involuntary erections. Many studies have been done to assess what ages of females healthy nondeviant men are aroused by.
One of the first major studies on this subject (Freund and Costell, 1970) involved 48 healthy young men of average age 20 enrolled in compulsory military service with no prior history of any mental or physical problems. These men were wired for phallometry, pictures were shown to them of naked males and females of all ages, and their penile responses were recorded. Categories for ages of pictures were: children 4-10 yrs, adolescents 12-16 yrs, adults 17-36 yrs.
The strongest penile response overall was to adult females. However, the response to adolescent females was almost exactly as strong as the response to adult females. Furthermore, 52-58% of healthy men experienced a positive penile response indicating arousal to female children. The control response to males of all ages was very low.
This result has since been replicated many times over the following decades. The conclusion scientific researchers have drawn from this study and others is that it is therefore normal for a healthy heterosexual man to be capable of sexual arousal by adolescent females in almost all cases, and even to be capable of arousal to female children in more than half of cases.
Many people in modern society will attempt to label any man who is sexually aroused by any female under 18 years old "a deviant." Scientifically, however, we can see there would be nothing deviant about any such arousal. It would in fact be completely normal. Whether any such arousal should be acted upon is a different subject altogether. Regardless, it can likely be agreed that vilifying men for simply possessing and acknowledging the natural, healthy sex drive they were born with is not helpful or productive.
- A series of studies in the 1970s and 1980s consistently showed that gynephilic men experience sexual arousal to prepubescent girls.
- Freund and Costell (1970) first demonstrated that in terms of relative arousal, gynephilic men showed the most increase to adult and pubescent females, the greatest decrease to all age categories of males, and arousal to prepubescent females falling between the two.
- Freund, McKnight, Langevin, and Cibiri (1972) assessed nondeviant gynephilic men and again found arousal even to the youngest girls (aged 6-8 years) was significantly greater than to males or to neutral images.
- Freund et al. (1972) created slides of specific body regions of the different age and gender groups, with results indicating greater arousal to the genitals and buttocks of young girls (aged 8-11 years) than to neutral slides.
- In a study examining nondeviant heterosexual and homosexual men, heterosexual men again showed significantly greater arousal to static nude images of all age categories of females than to male or neutral stimuli (Freund, Langevin, Cibiri, & Zajac, 1973).
- These patterns of arousal were replicated by both Frenzel and Lang (1989) and Blanchard, Lykins, et al. (2009).
- This pattern has been termed the “classical control profile” (Frenzel & Lang, 1989).
- Summary of research on the subject: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/44687033_Sexual_Arousal_to_Female_Children_in_Gynephilic_Men
- Lykins, Amy & Cantor, James & Kuban, Michael & Blak, Thomas & Dickey, Robert & E Klassen, Philip & Blanchard, Ray. (2010). Sexual Arousal to Female Children in Gynephilic Men. Sexual abuse : a journal of research and treatment. 22. 279-89. 10.1177/1079063210372141.
Men sexually prefer young women throughout life, while women prefer matched-age men
Research using online dating data from OK Cupid has shown that the ages of females that men find most sexually arousing don't change as men get older. As men get older, the ages of the women they like do not appreciably change. Throughout a man's life, he most prefers women who are 20-23. 20 was the lowest data point allowed in this study, and thus it is possible men's ideal preference may in fact be even lower.
By contrast, women prefer men who are within a few years of age throughout their lives, and as they get older, they prefer men who generally match their age. Only after 31 do they prefer men who are younger, and then only by a few years.
Currently, it has become commonplace in online communities for people to shame an older man for pursuing women in the age range he would find most attractive. This is deemed "creepy" and many people claim it makes him a "pervert". However, we can see from a male biological perspective it is totally natural. This can be understood as a further manifestation of an overly feminist society which deems anything women want as valid and beyond reproach, and anything men want differently as "toxic".
Women age facially at 2-3 times the rate of men
It is a common expression that comparatively speaking, "men age like wine, women age like milk." Scientifically, it has been shown that this phrase may in fact have validity, as women develop facial signs of aging at 2-3 times the rate that men do.
Facial analysis of aging patterns indicated women experience their greatest rate of aging from 50-60 when their faces age three times as quickly as men. During the rest of their lives, women age twice as quickly as men.
- The female rate of facial aging is higher than the male rate.
- Before age 50 and also after age 60, female faces age—on average—about twice as fast as male faces; between 50 and 60 years, this sex difference in aging rate is even more pronounced (up to three times faster).
- Aging was generally associated with a flatter face, sagged soft tissue (“broken” jawline), deeper nasolabial folds, smaller visible areas of the eyes, thinner lips, and longer nose and ears.
Men's desirability to women online peaks at 50, while women's peaks at 18 and then falls rapidly
Bruch and her colleagues analyzed thousands of messages exchanged on a “popular, free online-dating service” between more than 186,000 straight men and women. They looked only at four metro areas—New York, Boston, Chicago, and Seattle—and only at messages from January 2014.
By analyzing patterns of messaging, they were able to establish the overall desirability of men and women in online dating based on their ages. They found that women's desirability was highest at the youngest age permitted on the dating site, ie. 18 years old, and that it rapidly dropped as women aged. By contrast male desirability was relatively flat over time with a gentle peak by around age 50.
Observing the trend of desirability for women, it can be seen that the shape shows no signs of "leveling off" as it approaches 18. In a scenario where even younger women were allowed to participate, it seems likely the desirability would continue to rise by simple extrapolation of the existing curve trajectory.
This research also confirmed as have most studies that white men are consistently most desirable to women. Furthermore, they found that women had higher success rates when trying to "date up" towards more desirable men (ie. exert hypergamy) than men did with attempting to "date up" with women.
- The average woman’s desirability drops from the time she is 18 until she is 60.
- For men, desirability peaks around 50 and then declines.
- In keeping with previous work, there is also a clear and consistent dependence on ethnicity, with Asian women and white men being the most desirable potential mates by our measures across all four cities.
Younger female prostitutes are in higher demand and charge more, across numerous cultures
Dunn (2018) conducted a study wherein data was collected of advertising profiles posted by female escorts on the website https://adultwork.com. The data consisted of a cross-cultural sample, with data collected from the following countries/regions: Australia, The United States, The United Kingdom, Ireland and "Eastern Europe" (the particular countries were not specified.)
Dunn analyzed the data and controlled for such potential confounds as the lower rates offered by Eastern European escorts and the differential charged for 'in-calls' (visiting the escorts residence) vs out-calls (the escort travelling to the clients residence.) A direct analysis of the prices between the countries sampled was precluded by the different currencies utilized by the said countries. Dunn found:
- Cross culturally the youngest escorts (in their early to mid twenties) charged higher rates compared to somewhat older (30s) escorts and the lowest rates were provided by escorts in their 40s to 50s.
- One interesting finding gleaned from the current study is the fact that clients did not show a preference for the youngest age (20) compared to the second youngest age (25) in the United Kingdom (the only country whose data allowed such an analysis.) Dunn theorised this was due to men displaying a preference for signs of fertility (Waist to hip ratio of 0.7 ) over youth alone in a short term mating context.
- The results were supportive of previous research that indicates younger women possess a higher mate value, whereas older women, in this case older escorts;possess lower mate value which translates to reduced charges for sex.
Women rate 80% of men as "below average"
Dating site OK Cupid released data through their blog about the relative distribution of men's vs. women's ratings of the opposite gender. They found that while men rated women on a very even bell curve distribution, women rated 80% of men as below 5/10 to their assessment.
- Women rate an incredible 80% of guys as worse-looking than medium. Very harsh.
The top 10% of men get 58% of women's likes in online dating
Online dating app Hinge works similarly to Tinder, but was designed with the intent of creating a more equitable and better functioning dating market. However, even on Hinge, evidence for female hypergamy is overwhelming. The distribution of likes women provide is heavily skewed such that 16.4% of their likes go to the top 1% of men, 41.1% of their likes go to the top 5% of men, 58% of their likes go to the top 10%, and 95.7% of their likes go to the top 50%. This means that only 4.3% of their likes go to the entire bottom 50% of men. Thus a top 1% man will receive 190x times more likes as a man who is in the bottom 50%.
This suggests that women easily reach a very strong consensus on which men are attractive, which detracts from the notion that "beauty is subjective." It also suggests that if you are a below average man, the odds of receiving any significant number of likes at all or success is quite small.
The inequity in the dating market for each gender was further analyzed, and it was found that if the dating markets were considered like financial markets, the dating market for women would resemble Western Europe, while for men, it would resemble "kleptocracy, apartheid, perpetual civil war."
- The biggest problem men face on dating apps - the Brad Pitts of the world take the lion’s share of the likes from an already like-deficient sex.
- Every nation in the world has a currency, but that currency is not equally distributed amongst the citizens of every country. These economic inequalities are described using what is called the Gini index. In our context, the closer the Gini index is to 0, the more equally likes are distributed across all of our users; a higher Gini index rating means more likes are being concentrated into fewer recipients.
- It turns out that, as it pertains to incoming likes, straight females on Hinge show a Gini index of 0.376, and for straight males it’s 0.542. On a list of 149 countries’ Gini indices provided by the CIA World Factbook, this would place the female dating economy as 75th most unequal (average — think Western Europe) and the male dating economy as the 8th most unequal (kleptocracy, apartheid, perpetual civil war — think South Africa).
The top 5-20% of men (ie. "Chads") are now having more sex than ever before
Data was drawn from the 2002 and 2011–2013 National Survey of Family Growth, a US household survey focusing on sexual and reproductive health.
Researchers found that compared to 2002, men overall had the same number of partners in 2013. However, the top 20% of men had a 25% increase in sexual partners. The top 5% of men had an outstanding 38% increase in the number of sexual partners.
Thus while the amount of male sex that was had was unchanged, more of the sex was consolidated into extra sex for the top 5-20% of men (ie. "Chads"). Thus it is clear that Chads are truly having more sex than ever before.
- Although we found no change in median numbers of sex partners [for men], we found significant increases in the numbers of sex partners reported by the top 5% and 20%.
- We found an overall statistically significant increase in reported lifetime opposite-sex sex partners overall for men in the top 20% from 12 in 2002 to 15 in 2011–2013 (95% CIs, 11–14 and 15–15, respectively).
- Similarly, there was a statistically significant overall increase in reported lifetime partners for men in the top 5% from 38 in 2002 to 50 in 2011–2013 (95% CIs, 30–40 and 50–50, respectively).
- Harper CR, Dittus PJ, Leichliter JS, Aral, SO. Changes in the Distribution of Sex Partners in the United States: 2002 to 2011–2013. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: February 2017 - Volume 44 - Issue 2 - p 96–100. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000554
Average women receive 20 times as many matches as average men on Tinder
- Gareth Tyson, Vasile C. Perta, Hamed Haddadi, Michael C. Seto, Queen Mary University of London, Sapienza University of Rome, Royal Ottawa Health Care Group A First Look at User Activity on Tinder
Women are more attracted to men who are already in relationships than single men
A study by Parker & Burkley (2009) where female and male participants who were single or in a relationship viewed information about an opposite-sex other and indicated their interest in pursuing this target. Half of the participants were told that the target was single and half read that the target was currently in a relationship. The study authors found:
- 90% of single women indicated interest in an already attached male vs 59% who indicated interest in the same male who was stated to be single.
- There was no significant effect for men viewing pictures of women.
A further study by Eva & Wood (2006) that examined the mate preferences of young female college students (n=38, average age of participants 20.8 yrs) where the female participants where shown 10 pictures of males, with them being separated into two groups, one group told the each of the individual displayed males were single and another told they were married. The participants were told to rate the men on a 7 point scale on the following traits:(a) how well they anticipated being able to work with the man, (b) how attractive they found him, (c) how interested they would be in being friends with the man, and (d) how interested they would be in a romantic relationship with the man. They found:
- The mean attractiveness rating assigned to the 10 male images was greater when the males were labelled as being married (3.65) vs single (2.96)
- Marital status had a similar, but less dramatic, effect on participants' interest in friendship, married men being rated as being of more interest (mean 4.86) relative to single men (mean 4.54).
- There was no effect on anticipated ability to work with the men.
Therefore there is evidence that mate choice copying applies to humans as well as being a widely observed phenomenon throughout the animal world.
Thus the Matthew Principle ("For whosoever hath, to him shall be given, and he shall have more abundance. But whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken away even that which he hath" Matthew 13.12 KJ21) clearly applies to the realm of human sexual relationships.
Women are prone to instability when they are more attractive than their male partner
Women reported a tendency towards dating men who they perceived as more attractive than them. When their partners were less attractive than them, they reported less commitment, more resistance to men's public displays of affection, more flirting with other men, more appealing dating alternatives, and more frequent thoughts about breaking up.
Thus it seems apparent that satisfaction is only possible for a woman when a man "dates down." "Dating up" on the other hand for a man will create a situation of instability that will make the woman unhappy and initiate destabilizing behaviors.
- Women (N = 692) in romantic relationships (average duration approximately two years) self-reported their own as well as their partners' physical attractiveness, revealing significant perceived matching in physical attractiveness, as well as a tendency to rate their partners as more attractive than themselves.
- When women perceived themselves as more attractive than their mates, they reported less commitment, more flirting with other men, more appealing dating alternatives, and more frequent thoughts about breaking up.
Before 'enforced monogamy', 2-to-17x as many women as men successfully reproduced
A study by Karmin et al., (2015) which conducted an analysis of publicly available genetic data comparing the genetic diversity of the male Y chromosome to the female mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) found:
- 8-4 thousand years ago, roughly around the time Agricultural Civilization began to emerge in the Fertile Crescent (modern Iraq), South Asia, East Asia (China), the Nile River Valley and later in Neolithic Europe, 17 times as many women successfully reproduced compared to men.
- This disparity was stated to be chiefly related to an increasingly polygynous mating structure(harem society) that developed after the invention of agriculture leading to greater competition between men for mates as opposed to harsher natural selection being the main cause(i.e more men dying off young before reproducing) and that possibly greater levels of male immigration by conquest due to the easier transportation opportunities afforded by the invention of the wheel, domestication of the horse, camel etc. also contributed somewhat to this disparity.
- The development of agriculture and the more centralized political systems this enabled thus led to greater variance in male fitness due to inheritance of resources and social status (hereditary systems of political and religious succession i.e chiefdoms, hereditary priesthood, early monarchies).
- The authors stated "in particular, populations practicing strict monogamy tend to exhibit approximately equal ratios of male to female variance in reproductive success, while men in societies practicing serial monogamy or polygyny tend to have a higher variance in reproductive success than females, particularly in more sedentary populations."
Women name the wrong man as the "father" for between 0.8% and 30% of all childbirths
A review published in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health by Bellis et al.(2005) concluded that in cases where paternity was disputed, 26.9% of cases showed paternity discordance (PD, aka paternity fraud). In the general population where children were more randomly tested by blood or genetic markers to assess their paternity, the median rate of paternity fraud was 3.7%, with studies ranging from 0.8% to 30%.
The authors also remarked that those most at-risk of paternity fraud were men of low socio-economic status, and those most likely to commit it were young women in concurrent sexual relationships, which apparently included "British women with concurrent sexual partners in past 12 months;16–24 years = 15.2%, 25–34 years = 7.6%" and the authors of this study noted that this was an increasing trend, at least in the United Kingdom.
It is important to note this rate of paternity fraud is per birth not per individual(s) involved, therefore these figures underestimate somewhat the amount of men who fall victim to paternity fraud with at least one of their offspring. It is also important to note that even the most modest estimates detailed below represent a potentially large source of societal discord, as such incidents often have far reaching consequences even beyond the dyad involved.
|Paternity Fraud (%)||Location||Sample Size||Reference|
|18.0||USA||67||Sussman and Schatkin, 1957|
|1.4||USA||1417||Schacht and Gershowitz, 1963|
|10.1||USA||523||Schacht and Gershowitz, 1963|
|2.7||USA||6960||Peritz and Rust, 1972|
|9.0||South America||132||Neel and Weiss, 1975|
|7.0||France||300||Salmon et al, 1980|
|4.0||New Zealand||1983||Lathrop et al, 1983|
|1.4||UK||521||Brock and Shrimpton, 1991|
|2.8||France||362||Le Roux et al, 1992|
|4.0||Canada||25||Poon et al, 1993|
|0.8||Switzerland||1607||Sasse et al, 1994|
|11.8||Mexico||396||Cerda-Flores et al, 1999|
|1.6||UK||744||Chataway et al, 1999|
- For disputed paternity tests median levels of PD across 16 studies is 26.9%.
- For studies based on populations chosen for reasons other than disputed paternity median PD is 3.7%.
Women rapidly lose interest in sex once in a stable relationship or living with a man
Klusmann (2006) examined a set of data consisting of three different samples of individuals (30, 45 and 60;n=573) years of age, which were drawn randomly from local resident registration offices in Hamburg and Leipzig, Germany. 776 interviews were conducted, with a response rate of 30%.
Their level of sexual motivation and desire were measured by their level of agreement with several statements (i.e "Which of the following behaviors and feelings are more characteristic of you, and which are more characteristic of your partner Want(s) to have sex often with answer categories (1) more characteristic of me, (2) more characteristic of my partner, (3) characteristic of both of us, (4) characteristic of neither of us.")
It was found that male sexual desire remained constant, or even increased throughout the course of the relationship, while female sexual desire declined over time, but male desire for 'tenderness' declined and female desire for 'tenderness' stayed steady.
However, when examining factors modifying the relation between sex, partnership duration, and sexual motivation, it was found that female sexual desire rapidly declined after cohabitation, while it only slightly declined when the female was living separate to the male partner. It was also found that female sexual desire declined less when the male partner had a higher level of education relative to hers.
The author stated that these results appear to support the assertion in evolutionary psychology that differentiation of desire over the course of a relationship is explained by different motivations between the sexes stemming from evolutionary biology. In other words, men have a motivation to maintain a high level of sexual desire to ensure regular copulations to guard against cuckoldry by rival males, whereas the primary motivator when it comes to women is the desire to create and maintain a pair-bond with the male, to ensure his continued investment in her and her offspring.
- Female sexual motivation does not slope downward when (1) the female is not living with her partner or (2) her partner's educational level exceeds her own. In the first instance, the partnership might be experienced as not being fully established, and in the second instance the male partner might be identified as a valuable mate choice.
- Feelings of love do not stop female sexual motivation from declining, although the decline occurs at a higher level, closer to that of male sexual motivation.
- Questions therefore remain not only about whether the now-established findings from cross-sectional studies will emerge in a longitudinal study, but also whether alternative explanations are able to successfully compete with an evolutionary account of sex-specific time courses in sexual motivation.
The more women love their husbands, the less likely they are to initiate sex
Researchers interviewed 168 couples living in rural Pennsylvania who were in their first marriages about their activities and interactions with their partners within two months of when each couple was married and then annually over the course of 13-year study.
They found that the more men love their wives, the more likely they were to be affectionate and create an environment in which the couple does a variety of things together, be it leisure activities or household chores. The more husbands loved their wives, they more likely they were also to initiate sex.
By contrast, women showed affection by enacting fewer negative or antagonistic behaviors (e.g nagging less and being less annoying). Wives were actually less likely to initiate sex the more they loved their husbands.
So to summarize:
- The more men loved their wives, the more they wanted to have sex with those wives.
- The more women loved their husbands, the less they wanted to have sex with those husbands.
- Men showed affection by initiating sex, sharing leisure activities, and doing housework with their wife.
- Women showed affection by enacting fewer negative or antagonistic behaviors.
Perhaps this study best explains many MGTOWs frustration from their experiences with marriages. It seems sex to a woman is a goal-directed activity to establish a loving relationship, and once that loving relationship is strong, she feels little further need for it.
- Whereas wives expressed love by enacting fewer negative or antagonistic behaviors, husbands showed love by initiating sex, sharing leisure activities, and doing household work together with their wives.
Women initiate 69% of divorces
Based on a survey titled “How Couples Meet and Stay Together,” which collected data from 2,262 adults in heterosexual relationships, participants provided information about their relationship status between 2009 and 2015. Analysis of the data revealed that women initiated 69% of divorces, while men only initiated 31%. However, in cases where an unmarried man and woman cohabitated, each partner was equally likely to decide to break up.
Vegetarian men are less attractive, likable, and masculine to women than omnivorous men
Timeo, S., & Suitner, C. (2018) conducted a series of studies that concluded that:
- Women perceived vegetarian men as 8% less attractive, compared to omnivorous men.
- Women viewed vegetarian men as "less likable"
- The greater negative perception of vegetarian men was mediated by women's perception of vegetarian men as "less masculine".
- Gender role norms prescribing that men eat meat are actively maintained by both women and men and do in fact guide men’s food choices.
Higher partner count reduces marital success more for women than for men
Hazard ratios indicating increased odds of divorce for women with various pre-marital partner counts, per decade of marriage compared to reference category of 0 partners (total abstinence before marriage). Controlled for family structure of origin, race, education and urbanicity:
|Pre-Marriage Partner Count||Adjusted Hazard Ratio|
Data: The distribution of women's premarital sex partners, per marriage cohort (source National Survey of Family Growth):
Promiscuous women are more incompetent, cold, and unstable, according to women
Women 'dehumanize' and act more aggressively towards promiscuous women
Arnocky et al. (2019) recruited (n=113) heterosexual female under-graduate students (mean age=19.61) to confirm several predictions they had made regarding the nature inter-sexual competitiveness grounded in evolutionary theories. The women completed a psychometric scale measuring levels of Intrasexual Competitivenes. The scale consists of 12 items, such as “I can’t stand it when I meet another woman who is more attractive than I am” and “When I go out, I can’t stand it when men pay more attention to a friend of mine than to me.” Participants reported their level of agreement to these statements on a 1-7 Likert scale.
The participants were asked to make a short (3 minute) video with various questions designed to display their personality traits and ideals and aspirations. They were told that this video would be sent to same sex partner at a nearby university, and vice versa for the partner's video. A research confederate was featured in two videos in the same manner, reading from the same script, with the difference being that in one video the confederate was dressed in a 'sexualized' manner (make-up, cleavage etc.) versus being conservatively dressed (long-sleeve jumper, no make-up, hair concealed.)
To control for any possible changes in behavior between the two conditions, a group of female raters where asked to rate the audio voice recordings from the two videos, and they were judged to be similar in traits rated such as likability, intelligence, extraversion, and attractiveness. Each participant was randomly assigned to receive either the sexualized video or the conventional video. Prior to viewing their partner’s video, participants were instructed to pay close attention to the video because they would later complete several questionnaires about the personality characteristics of their partner.
After watching the video the participants were asked to rate their perceptions of the targets personality as measured by the Ten-Item Personality Inventory, which is a measure of the big-five personality traits. The researchers constructed a variable termed 'uniquely human personality traits' which was the average score across the four Openness and Conscientiousness items representing these two dimensions of the Big Five, which have been shown in previous research to be judged as the most uniquely 'human' personality traits.
The participants were then told they would play an economic game with their partner,a task that required them to select among three response options to earn points that would be exchangeable for money at the end of the study. Participants could choose to 'steal' points from their partner to but these stolen points were not added to the participants tally, thus stealing points was spiteful and aggressive (as it resulted in an opportunity cost, the participants time would ideally have been better spent protecting their own points).
It was found that the female participants 'dehumanized' the more sexualized woman, and this mediated (caused) the increased aggressive behavior towards her in the economic game, especially among women with a high level of intrasexual competitiveness.
- This suggests that mere exposure to a sexualized woman predicts intrasexual aggression and that it does so in part via reduced perceived humanness of the target
- This provides support for the sexual-economics hypothesis, in that women aggressively punish other women who present themselves as too sexually available as a function of intrasexual competition. An important aspect of women’s intrasexual competition may therefore entail the social regulation of women’s sexuality by other women
- This study provides some of the first empirical evidence in support of the hypothesis that women’s punishment of sexualized women is likely a function of intrasexual competition
Women write 45-61.3% of all "misogynistic" tweets on Twitter about female promiscuity
A data analysis of twitter in 2014 demonstrated that women appear to write at least 45% of the "misogynistic" tweets on Twitter, almost equal to the amount attributable to men.
A later analysis by Brandwatch, examining 64.8K gender related tweets, had the number even higher with female accounts producing 61.3% of tweets containing the slurs "slut" and "whore".
- Women were almost as likely to send tweets with the words “slut,” “whore” or “rape” – used both casually and offensively – as men were.
Women with 5+ lifetime sexual partners have a >21.8% chance of carrying genital herpes
Rates of genital herpes rise in women in direct proportion to the number of their lifetime sexual partners.
Genital herpes causes recurrent outbreaks of painful blisters in the genitals. There is no known cure. Once contracted, it lasts for life. As herpes outbreaks can occur anywhere in the pubic region, condoms offer only minimal protection. Furthermore, many individuals may shed herpes virus even when they are not having an outbreak and thus may infect future unsuspecting partners at any time.
|Lifetime Sex Partners||Prevalence of Genital Herpes in US Women|
Women sexualize themselves online to attract high status mates
Blake et al. (2018) regressed the aggregated count of 'sexy selfies' posted onto social media websites (Twitter and Instagram) in a city or county in the U.S onto five variables reflecting inequality between men and women in health, education, and the labor market (using the Gender Inequality Index Developed by the U.N) and then onto one variable measuring income inequality, the Gini coefficient.
The researchers found no significant association with gender inequality and the number of 'sexy selfies' posted in a particular region. They instead found a strong relationship between income inequality as measured by the Gini coefficient and the prevalence of 'sexy selfies' on social media. It was also found that women spend more money on self-beautification (beauty salons) and expensive clothes as measured by the greater profits of retailers and providers of these services in areas of high income inequality.
The researcher suggested that in opposition to feminist theories regarding women's sexualization being a function of patriarchal norms being imposed on them by men, it is instead women that choose to sexualize themselves to compete with each other in competition for high-status mates in areas with high income inequality and permissive sexual attitudes.
- Our findings raise the possibility that sexualization and appearance enhancement are markers of female competition, occurring in environments in which incomes are unequal and status competition is highly salient.
- We did not find any association between sexualization or physical appearance enhancement and the operational sex ratio, suggesting that the relative abundance or scarcity of mates is not associated with these outcomes.
- A recently accepted paper shows convergent evidence: Negative economic shocks narrow the pool of suitable men, thus intensifying mating competition among women by increasing the share of unwed women and mothers.
Women are half as likely as men to be very satisfied by a one night stand
Researchers from the company "Dr Ed" (now ZavaMed) surveyed 500 Americans and 500 Europeans to gauge their experiences with short-term sexual encounters. 66% of respondents admitted to having had a one night stand in the past. Only 14% of them were planned. On average, women in Europe and America have had five one night stands.
The study found that 35% of men reported feeling "very satisfied" after having a one night stand compared to only 17% of women, and thus women are half as likely as men to find one night stands very satisfying.
Women feel more "entitlement" to men's bodies for sexual pleasure than vice versa
Researchers in Australia surveyed differences between young men and women (aged 17 to 25 years) on a university campus to assess their sense of entitlement to sexual partner pleasure over 1-year with two waves of data collection.
They found that young women had significantly more entitlement to sexual partner pleasure than men did, and entitlement increased over time and with more sexual experience. The researchers review prior studies confirming these findings to be valid. They note that other research has also confirmed women place a greater emphasis than men on the role of having a sexual partner to meet their sexual desires and pleasure.
Many criticisms about incels in the media have centered around the notion that men feel too "entitled" to sex and female bodies for sexual pleasure. However, scientific research has shown women, not men, feel the greatest amount of entitlement to sexual pleasure from the opposite gender's bodies. Thus the idea that there is a problem because men are "too entitled" to women's bodies is not founded in the scientific literature. The the contrary, women clearly feel more "entitled" to men's bodies for sexual pleasure than vice versa.
|Time||Young Men||Young Women|
|Entitlement to partner pleasure||T1||3.79||3.94|
- Young women reported more sense of entitlement to sexual partner pleasure than young men, and the average level of entitlement increased from T1 to T2.
- Inexperienced participants reported less entitlement when compared to the three groups that reported a history of coitus.
- This finding compliments the broader research on gender difference in sexual development and behavior, which indicates young women place more emphasis than young men on the role of a sexual partner to meet their sexual desires and pleasure.
- Young women reported more sense of entitlement than young men, and older participants reported more entitlement relative to younger participants.
28% of young women now consider men even winking at them to be sexual harassment
YouGov performed a study surveying women's perspectives on what constitutes sexual harassment in the fallout from the #METOO movement. They found that young women have a far more draconian perspective on what constitutes sexual harassment compared to the previous generations of women. Young women were far more likely to view behavior that was only considered flirtatious in prior generations as now sexual harassment.
In a society where even simple measures of flirtation are now penalized and outlawed, it becomes difficult to understand how young people are meant to find romance in natural, real life settings, as men and women have done successfully for centuries before.
It seems evident that we are moving towards a more puritanical and sanitized version of gender interactions than any previous generation in recent history. The fear of sexual advances and assumption that any sexual advance ought to be punished as "harassment" correlates with the increase in celibacy for both genders.
It also seems apparent that as the goalposts for what is or isn't "harassment" continue to shift, there will be more and more room as time goes on to retroactively re-designate previously acceptable behaviors as "abuse".
|Women Who Say Behavior is
"Usually or Always Harassment":
|Touching Lower Back||48%||29%|
|Commenting on Attractiveness||28%||11%|
Women's definition of 'harassment' in online dating depends on the attractiveness of the man
A simulation of online dating was performed with fictional male profiles of varying attractiveness and social status. 128 female college students from a small northeastern public university participated to interact with these fictional male profiles. The male profiles then sent the female participants messages of increasing harassment. Researchers assessed how much harassment the women were willing to tolerate.
Results very clearly indicated that the strongest predictor of women's tolerance for "online harassment" was the attractiveness and social status of the "harasser" (ie. her interest in dating him).
- Participants' self reported likelihood to date a bogus male dating candidate was predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment.
- As a profile’s likelihood to date rating increased, so did the number of sexually harassing responses that participants were willing to tolerate.
- We found that participants exposed to a physically attractive bogus candidate were willing to receive more sexually harassing responses from the bogus candidate, as were participants exposed to a high status bogus candidate.
- Physically attractive individuals are perceived as less sexually harassing than unattractive individuals (Hendrix, Rueb, & Steel,1998).
- Women also reported being least upset when they imagined being harassed by a man of high occupational status (e.g., premedical student, graduate student, successful rock star) and most upset when being harassed by a man of low occupational status (e.g., construction worker, garbage collector, cleaning men, gas station attendant) (Buss, 1994).
The attractiveness of a male 'harasser' determines if the experience is enjoyable or traumatic
Fairchild (2010) conducted an online survey on perceptions of sexual harassment incidents of (N=1,277) relatively young (mean age 28.11) women. The women were given a series of questions from a modified version of the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire (SEQ) (e.g.,"Have you ever experienced unwanted sexual attention or interaction from a stranger?"; "Have you ever experienced catcalls, whistles, or stares from a stranger?") to measure if and/or how often they had been the recipient of such harassing behaviors.
The participants were then presented with a list of 17 contextual factors including (attractiveness, time of day, race, and location) and asked to select which of the features would make a experience of harassment by a stranger more frightening, which would make the experience more enjoyable, and which would make them more likely to react verbally. It was found that the primary factors that determined how enjoyable or traumatic women found the experience to be were:
- Physical Attractiveness - More attractive men most significantly increased women's enjoyment of the 'harassment'.
- Age - Similar or younger age in relation to the participant increased women's enjoyment of the 'harassment'.
- Race - Different race of man made women more likely to rate it as traumatic.
Frequency (in percent) of contextual factors reported to increase fear, enjoyment, and verbal reactions to stranger harassment.
|Younger Harasser (20s-30s)||10.1||18.2||14.0|
|Older Harasser (40+)||32.6||1.6||3.7|
|Harasser Same Race||3.1||4.7||7.6|
|Harasser Different Race||15.1||1.1||1.6|
- Similar behaviors from an attractive and unattractive man are viewed differently with the attractive man receiving more leeway in the potentially harassing behavior.
- Likewise, there is a contrast between younger harasser (18% responded more enjoyable) and older harasser (33% responded more frightening); this suggests that age may be an important contextual factor, particularly for determining if a situation is threatening enough to induce fear.
- It can only be assumed that the women (46% of participants) feel that stranger harassment is an unpleasant experience that cannot be improved. However, it is equally likely that these women (or some of them) find the experience highly enjoyable and such enjoyment cannot be increased.
Attractiveness determines perceptions of guilt or innocence in cases of sexual harassment
A simulated civil case was performed using college students (N = 324) as mock jurors. The case involved a plaintiff accusing a defendant of workplace sexual harassment. The physical attractiveness of the litigants was manipulated, and mock jurors were asked to decide whether the defendant was guilty.
They found that both the attractiveness of the plaintiff and defendant significantly affected outcomes of guilt or innocence. In particular:
- Jurors were nearly twice as likely find in favor of the plaintiff when the plaintiff was attractive, and they were also more certain of the guilt of the defendant.
- Female jurors were especially more likely to render a guilty verdict when the plaintiff was attractive and the defendant was unattractive.
- Guilty verdicts were significantly more frequent when the plaintiff was attractive.
- When the defendant was unattractive, female jurors were significantly more likely to render a guilty verdict when the plaintiff was attractive.
- The present results suggest that the physical appearance of litigants can influence the judgment of jurors.
Men & especially ugly men are considered inherently "creepier" than women
95.3% of the respondents thought that creepy people were much more likely to be males than females
Men are equally likely as women to be victims of violent crime
Statistics show the rates of violent victimization by criminals to be:
- Australia: The overall victims of violent crimes are 52% men, 48% women.
- USA: 19.6% of men and 19.7% of women are victims of violent crimes each year.
- Canada: 11.5% of men and 11.6% of women are victims of violent crimes each year.
Countries may define violent crime differently which will lead to large differences in the total percent between countries, but gender comparisons are still valid within each country.
Available data counters the feminist notion that women require "special protections" or ought to be a specially "protected class". Evidence suggests men warrant the same protections from violence as women.
- https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cv16.pdf (page 9)
More men are raped in the USA every year than women
Most popular culture likes to pretend women are the only victims of rape. However, based on Department of Justice figures, more men are raped in the US every year once prison rapes are counted.
According to these statistics, the number of male rapes is more than double the number of female rapes. However, advocates claim that these figures actually underestimate the number of prison rapes, particularly of juvenile inmates, which constituted 21% percent of prison rape victims in the United States according to a 2007 Bureau of Justice Statistics report.
The public is relatively silent on the subject and little empathy, support, or advocacy is offered to these male victims of rape.
- More men are raped in the U.S. than woman, according to figures that include sexual abuse in prisons.
- In 2008, it was estimated 216,000 inmates were sexually assaulted while serving time, according to the Department of Justice figures.
- That is compared to 90,479 rape cases outside of prison.
- Four per cent of prisoners said they had been sexually abused in 2011.
Any sex a woman has after drinking alcohol can be defined as rape by a man under US law
The US Justice department defines rape as:
- Rape: The penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim.
This definition very specifically requires a person's body to be penetrated in order for it to constitute rape. In the normal activities of heterosexual sex, then, according to the US Justice System, only a man can rape a woman, and a woman cannot rape a man. A woman would only be capable of raping a man if she were to penetrate his mouth or anus with an object, and this is not usually part of heterosexual activities.
Furthermore, US law states that if a person is to any extent intoxicated with alcohol (drunk), they are unable to give consent.
In previous generations it was considered normal that two people might meet at a bar or party while drunk and then have sex. However, the combination of these two legal conditions creates a situation where in every case where this now occurs, the man is automatically guilty of rape, and the woman has the right to press charges. Even if the man was passed out completely, if he had an erection, and the women sat on his erection, the man, not the woman, would be guilty of the crime.
This is an example of what happens when the creation of laws is guided by emotional reasons rather than rational scientific thought. Laws like this open up men to grave legal risk for participating in common mutual social sexual liaisons.
Women permit 'creepy' behavior from attractive but not unattractive men due to the 'horn effect'
Gibson & Gore (2015) conducted a study regarding women's perception of men's 'norm violating' behavior being influenced by their level of physical attractiveness, based on the well-proven concept of the halo effect, regarding physical attractiveness. The participants (n=170) female college students, were given a sheet describing two different scenarios: The first scenario was a common innocuous behavior (a boy asking to borrow her pen in class) and the second 'norm violating' scenario involved a strange man approaching her on campus and asking to take 'modeling' photographs of her.
Attached to the worksheet were two faces, one a young attractive man the other an unattractive man, both were wearing identical clothing and were Caucasian, with each participant being exposed to either face or scenario. The participants were required to answer if they would acquiesce to the man's request in both conditions, her level of comfort and her perception of the man's character. It was found that the women's perception of the men's character and her level of comfort were largely unaffected by the looks of the man in low norm violation condition, but their perception of the man's character and her level of comfort were significantly affected by the man's looks in the high norm violation condition, with the unattractive man being viewed far more harshly.
- Facially unattractive males receive a more negative response in terms of perceived characteristics from violating social norms than facially attractive males.
- The current experiment found that, while social violation of norms accounted for much of the differences between conditions, a devil effect occurred amplifying the negative feelings toward the unattractive male. In this way, a ‘‘double’’ devil effect occurred between norm violation and unattractiveness.
- Online dating, in particular, is susceptible to both the halo and devil attractiveness biases. These biases based on attractiveness often inﬂuence the perception of a user’s proﬁle and that of the individual as a whole.
- Risk factors for a devil effect occurring is not exclusive to social dating. The judicial system has been shown to be susceptible to attractiveness halo and devil effects when determining sentences, with the unattractive defendant receiving a more severe penalty than the attractive defendant for committing the same crime.
More teenage boys are victims of 'partner directed violence' then teenage girls
Shaffer et al. (2018) conducted a study on partner directed violence using data from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey drawn from the period of 2003-2013 (n boys = 18,441 and n girls = 17,459.)
The salient question in the survey relating to the researchers analysis of partner directed violence among adolescents was “During the past 12 months, did your boyfriend or girlfriend ever hit, slap or physically hurt you on purpose?” Response options were “no” (0), “yes” (1), and “not in a relationship (97).”
While finding that the rate of violence in romantic relationships among adolescents covered by the sample had been steadily declining (along with violence in general in the area sampled, British Columbia) it was found that from the three surveys conducted during the time-frame analysed by the researchers, boys were 45-58% more likely then girls to be victims of partner directed violence.
- Controlling for age, boys were 58% more likely than girls to have experienced PDV victimization in 2003 likely in 2008 and 45% more likely in 2013.
- Results could also reflect differences between boys and girls in their willingness to report PDV victimization. Some studies have indicated that men are more likely than women to under report PDV victimization and minimize the severity of violence within their relationships.
- In addition, despite recent declines in PDV victimization rates, sex disparities in PDV victimization are not improving. These findings underscore the need for an increased focus on both boys and girls as victims.
Sex is the most pleasurable, joyous, and meaningful human experience
A study by Grimma, Kemp & Jose (2015) was conducted to investigate and further elucidate on the concept of happiness and investigate what activities provide meaning and pleasure to people's lives depending on the individuals orientation to happiness (OTH). The concept of happiness was divided by the authors into the two theories of happiness held by the Ancient Greeks - hedonic happiness (minimizing pain and maximizing pleasure) and/or eudaimonia (a sense of 'meaning' and fulfillment.)
The subjects (N= 173; young university students) completed an initial questionnaire explaining the study and the concepts of happiness. Afterwards, at random intervals, they received text messages from the researchers querying them on the current activity they were engaged in, and how pleasurable, meaningful and engaging said activity was.
- Sex/making love was the highest rated behavior on all dimensions in this dataset, consistent with several other daily activity studies.
Loneliness is as deadly as obesity
Sex improves health in numerous ways
Apostolou, Shialos & Georgiadou (2019) conducted an online survey of (n=735;431 women and 304 men) Greek speaking individuals relating to the effects of interpersonal sexual relationships on happiness and life satisfaction.
The survey was conducted utilizing Google forms, and consisted of five parts: A scale designed to measure life satisfaction, a scale designed to measure happiness, the participants usual daily mood, how much positive or negative emotions the participants felt, and the participants self-reported level of mating success. It was found that this measure was reliable, as it was correlated with the participants likelihood to be single and their self-reported number of past relationships.
An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) performed on the data compiled by the researchers found that the researchers measure of 'mating success' (i.e how easy the participants reported being able to initiate and maintain romantic and sexual relationships) was significantly correlated with life satisfaction, levels of positive or negative emotions,and how happy the participants reported they were.
- The results indicated a significant effect of mating performance...with a positive coefficient (0.898) suggesting that a one point increase in the mating performance would result in 0.898 increase in the 0 to 10 scale. Note that the age and the sex were not significant.
- Consistent with our original hypothesis, we found that people who indicated poor mating performance experienced more negative emotions such as sadness and loneliness, and fewer positive emotions such as happiness and excitement, and they were less satisfied with their lives.
- To put it differently, a substantial part of poor emotional state observed in the population may be due to poor mating performance. This being the case, research in this area can potentially have important implications for improving well-being - poor mental state could be improved by devising ways to improve mating performance. In turn, this has implications that go beyond the realm of psychology.
- Alleviating poor mating performance, in most instances, requires external to the individual assistance.
Percentages of the participants who gave scores ‘4’ or ‘5’ for each emotion indicating that they experienced it frequently:
Women are happier being single than men
Decreases supply of available women relative to men who are looking for women, which inflates female value and allows them to be even more selective.
This is confirmed by other studies which show women also report lower satisfaction about being in any type of relationship than men.
Being single is a greater risk factor for developing depression in men than in women
De Velde, Bracke & Levecque (2010) conducted several data analyses of the third round of the European social survey which 'covered 25 European countries in 2006-2007'. Their aim was to examine the variance between the countries and the sexes regarding the risk factors of depression.
Using data from a self-reported eight-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), it was found that marriage and cohabitation was a protective factor against the development of depression in both sexes. Conversely, being single or widowed was a significantly larger risk factor for higher levels of depression in men than in women.
- Moreover, men seem to suffer more from the loss of a partner, especially since their wife is often also their closest confidant, while women often have confidants that are outside the family. This is partly reflected in our results, with widowhood as well as single-hood being a more significant risk factor for depression in men.
People that are married are 2.4x more likely to recover early from clinical depression
The brain reacts to rejection in the same manner as physical pain
Most men in the modern dating world must now face staggering amounts of rejection to even get a few replies or matches. Evidence suggests that these rejections do take a mental toll which feels no different than if the person being rejected is experiencing physical pain.
- We demonstrate the specificity of the secondary somatosensory cortex and dorsal posterior insula activity to physical pain.
- Activation in these regions was highly diagnostic of physical pain, with positive predictive values up to 88%.
- These results give new meaning to the idea that rejection “hurts.”
- They demonstrate that rejection and physical pain are similar not only in that they are both distressing—they share a common somatosensory representation as well.
Being shown a picture of a romantic partner results in higher pain tolerance
Younger et al. conducted a study on n= 15 college students (8 women and 7 men, age range 19–21 years, M = 20 years) in their first 9 months of a romantic relationship, who described themselves as 'intensely in love'. Each participant was required to provide photos of his/her romantic partner and a 'long term acquaintance' of the same attractiveness level as their romantic partner.
The participants were requested to put their hands on a heat block of steadily escalating temperature, which was incrementally increased until to participants reached the limit of the subjective pain (rated on a 1-10 scale) they could endure. The participants were put under three conditions: viewing a picture of their acquaintance, viewing a picture of their romantic partner, or completing a word association task as a control.
It was found that participants could endure significantly more pain when told to focus on the picture of their romantic partner, and during the word association task. The heat was also rated as subjectively less intense when focusing on their romantic partner. Only when they focused on their romantic partner were the brains reward systems activated (as measured by MRI.)
- As suggested by previous behavioral research, viewing pictures of a romantic partner effectively reduced self-reported pain.
- We show here that the activation of reward systems by viewing pictures of one's romantic partner is associated with reduced pain. A better understanding of these analgesic pathways may allow us to identify new targets and methods for producing effective pain relief.
Women prefer stoic men who downplay their health problems in a long-term relationship
Brown, Hirachi, and Zandbergen (2018) conducted a study of the mate preferences of (N=86) female college students. The participants were shown a set of slideshows, corresponding to the ethnicity they self-identified as (Caucasian, Asian and Pacific Islander.) Each slideshow consisted of nine slides displaying a facially symmetrical versus asymmetrical man, a mesomorphic (waist to shoulder ratio at the 'ideal' of .6) versus a less mesomorphic man and a man in a t-shirt versus a man in a suit.
Each slide was accompanied by a vignette which described the man in the photo, who were described as accomplished college students and sportsmen. The vignettes also described the men as being in various states of illness (cold, headache, and 'vog'-i.e respiratory problems caused by volcanic eruptions in Hawaii; where the study was conducted.) The vignette depicted the man as either being stoic in response to the illnesses or suffering from the illness.
The female participants viewed the slideshow and rated the men on their desirability for either a short-term or long-term relationship. The three pairs of slides where manipulated to vary the vignettes in such parameters as facial symmetry, status/wealth, bodily attractiveness or stoicism.
It was found that the female participants preferred men who 'suffered in silence' as long-term mates, and high status men. In terms of short-term mates, the women displayed a preference for men with high levels of facial symmetry and mesomorphic physiques. The women also displayed a preference for men who succumbed more to the minor illnesses, if they were physically attractive (mesomorphic physique).
- As predicted by health selection theory, the participants preferred stoic men as LT mates.
- The theory hypothesizes that men ignore or are unaware of their minor health symptoms because women historically chose mates who ignored minor health problems rather than succumbed to them.
- If men have been selected to ignore or are not conscious of their health problems, then their health services should emphasize how to increase men’s perceptions of their potential health problems so that they are more like to engage in preventive health care.
- We found that women switched their preferences away from status to physically attractive men, in terms of facial symmetry and increased mesomorphism when making ST mate choices, replicating previous findings.
Celibacy in young unmarried US men is now 28% and rising, particularly affecting ethnic men
The best information we have to judge trends in celibacy in North America comes from the NORC GSS, more fully known as the National Organization for Research at the University of Chicago General Social Survey. This is a long running social survey in America which every two years asks a representative group of thousands of Americans questions to gauge numerous aspects about their lives.
One particular area of questioning surrounds sexual relationships. The NORC GSS data has provided some of the most striking signs that celibacy, and in particular male celibacy is skyrocketing in recent years. In fact, male celibacy overall is now at 28%, which is almost triple what it was a decade ago.
The biggest cultural shift that has coincided with this increase in male celibacy is the rise and dominance of online dating, and given the studies referenced above, the effect it is having should be no surprise. However, the trend of increasing male celibacy started even since the 60s according to other data, indicating the sexual revolution which freed women's hypergamy may have been the first step in this direction.
The majority of increased celibacy is being born by ethnic men, while ethnic women by contrast are at their lowest rates of celibacy in history. This trend matches the known racial data covered above, where ethnic men are punished by women in a way that ethnic women are not punished by men.
Interestingly, overall, female celibacy also seems to be rising indicating many women are now dropping out of the dating market altogether. This is represented also by the small proportion of online dating users who are female.
If trends continue without a new cultural shift to compensate, it may well be that America begins to resemble Japan, where >40% of young unmarried men and women are not only not in relationships, but they are virgins.
42% of men and 44% of women 18-35 years old and unmarried in Japan are now virgins
A 2016 survey of Japanese people aged 18 to 34 found that almost 70 percent of unmarried men and 60 percent of unmarried women are not in a relationship. Moreover, around 42 percent of the men and 44.2 percent of the women admitted they were virgins.
There are now many more virgins than in 2010, when the last study was conducted and when only 36.2 percent of men and 38.7 percent of women said they had never had sex.
Birth rates in Japan are also dropping and have now reached the lowest levels in history. Given the trends we are seeing in other countries like USA, it is possible Japan may be a model of what is to come for the west as well.
The number of high school students who date is plummeting
Age of first sex is rising in USA for both genders
Online services are the primary way people meet for relationships
According to data from the How Couples Meet and Stay Together survey, a comprehensive national survey on romantic relationships in the US, 39% of couples now meet and start relationships online. This has now become the leading way for relationships to start. The share of couples meeting online has almost doubled since 2009. Between 1995 to 2017, meeting through friends saw the largest decline, with 40% fewer people meeting this way. 23% of that is couples that explicitly met on online dating services, with the number of couples meeting through online dating platforms continuing to grow exponentially.
This is likely the most transformative change that has occurred in the dating sphere in the past 20 years. This change coincides clearly with many of the other trends discussed on this page, such as the overall increase in male celibacy during this time frame and greater amount of sex being consolidated to the top 5-20% of men.
This change has also created a $4 billion online dating industry. Many of these online services primarily target men for payments by requiring ongoing payments in order for their profile to be seen by women (eg. Tinder Boosts).
- For heterosexual couples in the U.S., meeting online has become the most popular way couples meet, eclipsing meeting through friends for the first time around 2013.
- 39% of heterosexual couples that got together in the US in 2017 met online.
- The share of couples meeting online has just about doubled since 2009.
- Between 1995 to 2017, meeting through friends saw the largest decline, from 33% of couples at the start of the period to just 20% at the end.
- We find that Internet meeting is displacing the roles that family and friends once played in bringing couples together.
- Rosenfeld M, Thomas RJ, Hausen S. 2019. Research Note: Disintermediating your friends. Pending for peer-review publication.
Online dating is dominated by men, only 21%-34% of users are female
Many commentators on the rising male celibacy rates have suggested these rates reflect men no longer making an effort to meet women. Statistics of gender participation in online dating contradict this perspective. They show men are the overwhelming users of online dating apps while women make up a small minority.
Based on these gender statistics, it seems apparent that men are very much trying, but a disproportionate amount of women aren't interested in participating at all. Any effort to improve relationship uptake between the genders would then need to focus on increasing female, not male, engagement.
Gender breakdowns of dating app users in 2019 as per Statista are as follows:
Online dating users have lower self-esteem
Although online dating has become the most prevalent way for people to now meet, evidence does not show it is healthy. As noted in another entry, male online daters are prone to eating disorders and steroid abuse. And studies show both genders of online daters suffer from increased body dissatisfaction, body shame, body monitoring, comparing oneself physically to others, and using media to guide perspective on appearance and attractiveness.
- We found that being actively involved with Tinder, regardless of the user’s gender, was associated with body dissatisfaction, body shame, body monitoring, internalization of societal expectations of beauty, comparing oneself physically to others, and reliance on media for information on appearance and attractiveness.
Winners in a rigged game will consider the game fair as long as they keep winning
Many people are prone to believing in the just-world fallacy - the notion that our victories and failures are just and the appropriate reward or punishment to our actions. People like to continue believing the world is fair even when they intellectually know that it is not.
Researchers tested people's predispositions to the just-world fallacy by having them engage in a rigged card game. The game was designed so that one player would have a clear advantage throughout the game that would essentially guarantee their victory. They found that although both players could recognize the game was imbalanced, the winner was consistently more likely to still believe the game was "fair" and that their victory was the result of their skill and merit.
They suggest this can help understand how people react to inequalities in life. Generally, in a rigged game, their findings show that those who "win" will have a greater tendency to ignore the legitimate complaints of those who lose.
- Winners were generally more likely to believe that the game was fair, even when the playing field was most heavily tilted in their favor.
- In short, it’s not just how the game is played, it’s also whether you win or lose.
Men are more likely than women to commit suicide
Data: Suicide gender ratios by region (Source WHO, 2008)
|---||World||1.8 : 1|
|1||Europe||4.0 : 1|
|2||Americas||3.6 : 1|
|3||Africa||2.2 : 1|
|4||South East Asia||1.5 : 1|
|5||Western Pacific||1.3 : 1|
|6||Eastern Mediterranean||1.1 : 1|
Loneliness and suicide rates are rising for both genders
Incel forums are disproportionately populated by disabled, autistic, and ethnic men
A poll from braincels shows that whites constitute only 28% of that forum's population, with the largest racial demographic being South Asian (eg. Indian). The most recent poll by incels.co showed that 57% of its members were white.
For comparison, surveys on Reddit of the general userbase tend to show 80% white users overall. Thus we can approximate that the typical Reddit population is 1.4-3.6 times more white than incel groups. Given the sections on race above, this should not be surprising.
Other characteristics of incels.co users from site surveys include:
- 78% report constantly suffering from depression, anxiety, and stress.
- 82% have considered suicide.
- 62% have considered surgery to improve their looks.
- 77% report being healthy weight or underweight (only 23% report being overweight, which is far less than the general western population average).
- 57% report suffering from a medical condition like autism or a physical disability that impairs their normal daily functions.